Background: Increasing evidence suggests that carotenoids, which are micronutrients in fruit and vegetables, reduce breast cancer risk. Whether carotenoids are important early or late in carcinogenesis is unclear, and limited analyses have been conducted by breast tumor subtypes.
The Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT, “Gail model”) is commonly used for breast cancer prediction; however, it has not been validated for women age 75 years and older.
Background: Greater red meat intake is associated with an increased type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. However, the relation of red meat intake to biomarkers of inflammation and glucose metabolism has not been investigated thoroughly.
The objective of the study was to evaluate in premenopausal women the relationships of physically active and sedentary behaviors reported for adulthood and adolescence with a comprehensive profile of estrogen metabolism.
The pregnancy–lactation cycle (PLC) is a period in which the breast is transformed from a less-developed, nonfunctional organ into a mature, milk-producing gland that has evolved to meet the nutritional, developmental, and immune protection needs of the newborn. Cessation of lactation initiates a process whereby the breast reverts to a resting state until the next pregnancy...
Background: Levels of endogenous hormones have been associated with the risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women. Little research, however, has investigated the association between hormone levels and tumor receptor status or invasive versus in situ tumor status. Nor has the relation between breast cancer risk and postmenopausal progesterone levels been investigated. We...
Carotenoids, micronutrients in fruits and vegetables, may reduce breast cancer risk. Most, but not all, past studies of circulating carotenoids and breast cancer have found an inverse association with at least one carotenoid, although the specific carotenoid has varied across studies.