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Validated imaging biomarkers as decision-making tools in clinical trials and routine practice: current status and recommendations from the EIBALL* subcommittee of the European Society of Radiology (ESR)

Observer-driven pattern recognition is the standard for interpretation of medical images. To achieve global parity in interpretation, semi-quantitative scoring systems have been developed based on observer assessments; these are widely used in scoring coronary artery disease, the arthritides and neurological conditions and for indicating the likelihood of malignancy. However, in...

The successive projection algorithm as an initialization method for brain tumor segmentation using non-negative matrix factorization

Sauwen, Halandur N. Bharath, Diana M. Sima, Sabine Van Huffel. Data curation: Nicolas Sauwen, Marjan Acou, Eric Achten. Formal analysis: Nicolas Sauwen, Jelle Veraart. Funding acquisition: Diana M ... . Sima, Uwe Himmelreich, Eric Achten, Sabine Van Huffel. Investigation: Nicolas Sauwen, Marjan Acou, Jelle Veraart. Methodology: Nicolas Sauwen, Diana M. Sima. Project administration: Nicolas Sauwen

“Unforgettable” – a pictorial essay on anatomy and pathology of the hippocampus

The hippocampus is a small but complex anatomical structure that plays an important role in spatial and episodic memory. The hippocampus can be affected by a wide range of congenital variants and degenerative, inflammatory, vascular, tumoral and toxic-metabolic pathologies. Magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred imaging technique for evaluating the hippocampus. The main...

Optimal number of atlases and label fusion for automatic multi-atlas-based brachial plexus contouring in radiotherapy treatment planning

Background The present study aimed to define the optimal number of atlases for automatic multi-atlas-based brachial plexus (BP) segmentation and to compare Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE) label fusion with Patch label fusion using the ADMIRE® software. The accuracy of the autosegmentations was measured by comparing all of the generated...

Optimal number of atlases and label fusion for automatic multi-atlas-based brachial plexus contouring in radiotherapy treatment planning

The present study aimed to define the optimal number of atlases for automatic multi-atlas-based brachial plexus (BP) segmentation and to compare Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE) label fusion with Patch label fusion using the ADMIRE® software. The accuracy of the autosegmentations was measured by comparing all of the generated autosegmentations with the...

The effect of morphometric atlas selection on multi-atlas-based automatic brachial plexus segmentation

Purpose The present study aimed to measure the effect of a morphometric atlas selection strategy on the accuracy of multi-atlas-based BP autosegmentation using the commercially available software package ADMIRE® and to determine the optimal number of selected atlases to use. Autosegmentation accuracy was measured by comparing all generated automatic BP segmentations with...

The effect of morphometric atlas selection on multi-atlas-based automatic brachial plexus segmentation

The present study aimed to measure the effect of a morphometric atlas selection strategy on the accuracy of multi-atlas-based BP autosegmentation using the commercially available software package ADMIRE® and to determine the optimal number of selected atlases to use. Autosegmentation accuracy was measured by comparing all generated automatic BP segmentations with anatomically...

Overlapping Neural Systems Represent Cognitive Effort and Reward Anticipation

Anticipating a potential benefit and how difficult it will be to obtain it are valuable skills in a constantly changing environment. In the human brain, the anticipation of reward is encoded by the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) and Striatum. Naturally, potential rewards have an incentive quality, resulting in a motivational effect improving performance. Recently it has been...

A New Method for Non-Invasive Estimation of Human Muscle Fiber Type Composition

Background It has been established that excellence in sports with short and long exercise duration requires a high proportion of fast-twitch (FT) or type-II fibers and slow-twitch (ST) or type-I fibers, respectively. Until today, the muscle biopsy method is still accepted as gold standard to measure muscle fiber type composition. Because of its invasive nature and high sampling...

Does visual cortex lactate increase following photic stimulation in migraine without aura patients? A functional 1H-MRS study

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) has been used in a number of studies to assess noninvasively the temporal changes of lactate (Lac) in the activated human brain. Migraine neurobiology involves lack of cortical habituation to repetitive stimuli and a mitochondrial component has been put forward. Our group has recently demonstrated a reduction in the high-energy...