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A comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals the core genetic components of salt and osmotic stress responses in Braya humilis

Ma. Data curation: Pengshan Zhao. Formal analysis: Pengshan Zhao. Funding acquisition: Pengshan Zhao, Guoxiong Chen. Investigation: Lirong Wang, Xin Zhao, Xiao-Fei Ma. Methodology: Pengshan Zhao ... with different selection thresholds. (DOCX) S5 Table. The 39 core salt and osmotic stress genes in B. humilis and GO annotation. (XLSX) Author Contributions Conceptualization: Pengshan Zhao, Xiao-Fei

Different Sets of Post-Embryonic Development Genes Are Conserved or Lost in Two Caryophyllales Species (Reaumuria soongorica and Agriophyllum squarrosum)

Reaumuria soongorica and sand rice (Agriophyllum squarrosum) belong to the clade of Caryophyllales and are widely distributed in the desert regions of north China. Both plants have evolved many specific traits and adaptation strategies to cope with recurring environmental threats. However, the genetic basis that underpins their unique traits and adaptation remains unknown. In...

Complete Plastid Genome Sequencing of Four Tilia Species (Malvaceae): A Comparative Analysis and Phylogenetic Implications

Tilia is an ecologically and economically important genus in the family Malvaceae. However, there is no complete plastid genome of Tilia sequenced to date, and the taxonomy of Tilia is difficult owing to frequent hybridization and polyploidization. A well-supported interspecific relationships of this genus is not available due to limited informative sites from the commonly used...

The Role of Transposable Elements in the Origin and Evolution of MicroRNAs in Human

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in eukaryotes via targeting gene 3'-untranslated regions. Transposable elements (TEs) are considered as natural origins of some miRNAs. However, what miRNAs are and how these miRNAs originate and evolve from TEs remain unclear. We identified 409 TE-derived miRNAs (386 overlapped with...

MiR-138 Suppresses Cell Proliferation by Targeting Bag-1 in Gallbladder Carcinoma

Background MiR-138 is frequently downregulated in different cancer types and is thought to be involved in the progression of tumorigenesis. However, the molecular mechanism of miR-138 involvement in gallbladder carcinoma still remains unknown. Methods The expression of miR-138 in 49 gallbladder carcinoma samples and paired normal gallbladder samples was analyzed using...

Protease-Activated Receptor 4 Induces Bladder Pain through High Mobility Group Box-1

Pain is the significant presenting symptom in Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/PBS). Activation of urothelial protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4) causes pain through release of urothelial macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1), a chromatin-binding protein, mediates bladder pain (but not inflammation) in an experimental...

A CLDN1-Negative Phenotype Predicts Poor Prognosis in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Introduction Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease with no definitive prognostic markers. As a major component of tight junctions, claudins (CLDNs) presumably play an important role in carcinogenesis and progression of breast cancer. This study was aimed at determining the relationship between the expression of CLDNs and the clinical outcomes of TNBCs...

Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Mediates PAR-Induced Bladder Pain

Introduction Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is constitutively expressed in urothelial cells that also express protease-activated receptors (PAR). Urothelial PAR1 receptors were shown to mediate bladder inflammation. We showed that PAR1 and PAR4 activator, thrombin, also mediates urothelial MIF release. We hypothesized that stimulation...

Identification of Valid Reference Genes for the Normalization of RT-qPCR Expression Studies in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines Treated with and without Transient Transfection

Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful technique for examining gene expression changes during tumorigenesis. Target gene expression is generally normalized by a stably expressed endogenous reference gene; however, reference gene expression may differ among tissues under various circumstances. Because no valid reference genes have been...

Complete Sequencing of Five Araliaceae Chloroplast Genomes and the Phylogenetic Implications

BackgroundThe ginseng family (Araliaceae) includes a number of economically important plant species. Previously phylogenetic studies circumscribed three major clades within the core ginseng plant family, yet the internal relationships of each major group have been poorly resolved perhaps due to rapid radiation of these lineages. Recent studies have shown that phyogenomics based...

Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization in Reaumuria soongorica

Despite its superiority for evaluating gene expression, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results can be significantly biased by the use of inappropriate reference genes under different experimental conditions. Reaumuria soongorica is a dominant species of desert ecosystems in arid central Asia. Given the increasing interest in ecological engineering and...

An Ultra-Sensitive Monoclonal Antibody-Based Competitive Enzyme Immunoassay for Sterigmatocystin in Cereal and Oil Products

Sterigmatocystin (STG), a biosynthesis precursor of aflatoxin B1, is well known for its toxic and carcinogenic effects in humans and animals. STG derivatives and protein conjugates are needed for generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). This work describes a reliable and fast synthesis of novel STG derivatives, based on which novel STG bovine serum albumin conjugates were...

Circulating miR-19a and miR-205 in Serum May Predict the Sensitivity of Luminal A Subtype of Breast Cancer Patients to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with Epirubicin Plus Paclitaxel

Background The luminal A subtype of breast cancer has a good prognosis and is sensitive to endocrine therapy but is less sensitive to chemotherapy. It is necessary to identify biomarkers to predict chemosensitivity and avoid over-treatment. We hypothesized that miRNAs in the serum might be associated with chemosensitivity. Methods Sixty-eight breast cancer patients received...

Application of Multispectral Imaging to Determine Quality Attributes and Ripeness Stage in Strawberry Fruit

Multispectral imaging with 19 wavelengths in the range of 405–970 nm has been evaluated for nondestructive determination of firmness, total soluble solids (TSS) content and ripeness stage in strawberry fruit. Several analysis approaches, including partial least squares (PLS), support vector machine (SVM) and back propagation neural network (BPNN), were applied to develop...

The Evolution and Origin of Animal Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway Revealed by Network-Level Molecular Evolutionary Analyses

Genes carry out their biological functions through pathways in complex networks consisting of many interacting molecules. Studies on the effect of network architecture on the evolution of individual proteins will provide valuable information for understanding the origin and evolution as well as functional conservation of signaling pathways. However, the relationship between the...

Rapid Sequencing of the Bamboo Mitochondrial Genome Using Illumina Technology and Parallel Episodic Evolution of Organelle Genomes in Grasses

Background Compared to their counterparts in animals, the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of angiosperms exhibit a number of unique features. However, unravelling their evolution is hindered by the few completed genomes, of which are essentially Sanger sequenced. While next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized chloroplast genome sequencing, they are just beginning to...

Phylogenomic Analyses of Nuclear Genes Reveal the Evolutionary Relationships within the BEP Clade and the Evidence of Positive Selection in Poaceae

BEP clade of the grass family (Poaceae) is composed of three subfamilies, i.e. Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, and Pooideae. Controversies on the phylogenetic relationships among three subfamilies still persist in spite of great efforts. However, previous evidence was mainly provided from plastid genes with only a few nuclear genes utilized. Given different evolutionary histories...

High-Throughput Sequencing of Six Bamboo Chloroplast Genomes: Phylogenetic Implications for Temperate Woody Bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae)

Background Bambusoideae is the only subfamily that contains woody members in the grass family, Poaceae. In phylogenetic analyses, Bambusoideae, Pooideae and Ehrhartoideae formed the BEP clade, yet the internal relationships of this clade are controversial. The distinctive life history (infrequent flowering and predominance of asexual reproduction) of woody bamboos makes them an...

A Picea abies Linkage Map Based on SNP Markers Identifies QTLs for Four Aspects of Resistance to Heterobasidion parviporum Infection

A consensus linkage map of Picea abies, an economically important conifer, was constructed based on the segregation of 686 SNP markers in a F1 progeny population consisting of 247 individuals. The total length of 1889.2 cM covered 96.5% of the estimated genome length and comprised 12 large linkage groups, corresponding to the number of haploid P. abies chromosomes. The sizes of...