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18 papers found.
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Decreased Dicer Expression Enhances SRP-Mediated Protein Targeting

We have shown that Dicer processes 7SL RNA into different fragments ranging from ∼20 to more than 200 nucleotides. Here we addressed the molecular functions of these 7SL RNA fragments and found that some of them functioned as dominant-negative regulators of the full-length 7SL RNA, interfering with signal recognition particle (SRP) complex formation. Transfection of these 7SL RNA...

Transcriptional Responses of Leptospira interrogans to Host Innate Immunity: Significant Changes in Metabolism, Oxygen Tolerance, and Outer Membrane

Background Leptospira interrogans is the major causative agent of leptospirosis. Phagocytosis plays important roles in the innate immune responses to L. interrogans infection, and L. interrogans can evade the killing of phagocytes. However, little is known about the adaptation of L. interrogans during this process. Methodology/Principal Findings To better understand the...

Dicer-Dependent Biogenesis of Small RNAs Derived from 7SL RNA

It has been reported that decreased Dicer expression leads to Alu RNAs accumulation in human retinal pigmented epithelium cells, and Dicer may process the endogenous SINE/B1 RNAs (the rodent equivalent of the primate Alu RNAs) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). In this study, we aimed to address whether Dicer can process Alu RNAs and their common ancestor, 7SL RNA. Using...

Invasion Genetics of the Western Flower Thrips in China: Evidence for Genetic Bottleneck, Hybridization and Bridgehead Effect

The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. F. occidentalis, which is endemic to North America, was initially detected in Kunming in southwestern China in 2000 and since then it has rapidly invaded several other localities in China where it has greatly...

Responses of Murine and Human Macrophages to Leptospiral Infection: A Study Using Comparative Array Analysis

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging tropical infectious disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp. The different host innate immune responses are partially related to the different severities of leptospirosis. In this study, we employed transcriptomics and cytokine arrays to comparatively calculate the responses of murine peritoneal macrophages (MPMs) and human peripheral blood...

β2-Microglobulin Amyloid Fibril-Induced Membrane Disruption Is Enhanced by Endosomal Lipids and Acidic pH

Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathology of amyloidoses are not well understood, the interaction between amyloid proteins and cell membranes is thought to play a role in several amyloid diseases. Amyloid fibrils of β2-microglobulin (β2m), associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA), have been shown to cause disruption of anionic lipid bilayers in vitro...

Origins and Domestication of Cultivated Banana Inferred from Chloroplast and Nuclear Genes

Background Cultivated bananas are large, vegetatively-propagated members of the genus Musa. More than 1,000 cultivars are grown worldwide and they are major economic and food resources in numerous developing countries. It has been suggested that cultivated bananas originated from the islands of Southeast Asia (ISEA) and have been developed through complex geodomestication...

Artificial Language Training Reveals the Neural Substrates Underlying Addressed and Assembled Phonologies

Although behavioral and neuropsychological studies have suggested two distinct routes of phonological access, their neural substrates have not been clearly elucidated. Here, we designed an artificial language (based on Korean Hangul) that can be read either through addressed (i.e., whole word mapping) or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping) phonology. Two matched groups...

Personalized Tacrolimus Dose Requirement by CYP3A5 but Not ABCB1 or ACE Genotyping in Both Recipient and Donor after Pediatric Liver Transplantation

Tacrolimus (TAC) is the backbone of an immunosuppressive drug used in most solid organ transplant recipients. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 6986G>A in CYP3A5 has been notably involved in the pharmacokinetic variability of TAC. It is hypothesized that CYP3A5 genotyping in patients may provide a guideline for TAC therapeutic regimen. To further evaluate the...

Common Neural Mechanisms Underlying Reversal Learning by Reward and Punishment

Impairments in flexible goal-directed decisions, often examined by reversal learning, are associated with behavioral abnormalities characterized by impulsiveness and disinhibition. Although the lateral orbital frontal cortex (OFC) has been consistently implicated in reversal learning, it is still unclear whether this region is involved in negative feedback processing, behavioral...

Analysis of Toxic Amyloid Fibril Interactions at Natively Derived Membranes by Ellipsometry

There is an ongoing debate regarding the culprits of cytotoxicity associated with amyloid disorders. Although small pre-fibrillar amyloid oligomers have been implicated as the primary toxic species, the fibrillar amyloid material itself can also induce cytotoxicity. To investigate membrane disruption and cytotoxic effects associated with intact and fragmented fibrils, the novel...

Myocardial Injury after Surgery Is a Risk Factor for Weaning Failure from Mechanical Ventilation in Critical Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery

Background Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) is a newly proposed concept that is common among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery and associated with substantial mortality. We analyzed whether MINS was a risk factor for weaning failure in critical patients who underwent major abdominal surgery. Methods This retrospective study was conducted in the Department of...

SRSF1 Facilitates Cytosolic DNA-Induced Production of Type I Interferons Recognized by RIG-I

Background Evidence has shown that psoriasis is closely associated with infection; however, the mechanism of this association remains unclear. In mammalian cells, viral or bacterial infection is accompanied by the release of cytosolic DNA, which in turn triggers the production of type-I interferons (IFNs). Type I IFNs and their associated genes are significantly upregulated in...

Cardiac β2-Adrenergic Receptor Phosphorylation at Ser355/356 Regulates Receptor Internalization and Functional Resensitization

Previous studies have demonstrated that β2-adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) can be phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and protein kinase A (PKA), affecting β2AR internalization and desensitization. However, the exact physiological function of β2ARs in cardiomyocytes is unknown. In this study, we showed that neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes had different...

Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Molecular Mechanisms of Fosfomycin Resistance in Clinical Escherichia coli Isolates in Mainland China

Escherichia coli is one of the most common pathogens in nosocomial and community-acquired infections in humans. Fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic which inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis responsible for bacterial cell wall formation. Although low, the exact E. coli susceptibility to fosfomycin as well as the mechanisms of resistance in the population from Mainland China are...

Socio-Demographic Predictors and Distribution of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) in Xinjiang, China: A Spatial Analysis

other interested researchers by contacting Dr. Feng Xue 2 Editor: Antonio Guilherme Pacheco , FIOCRUZ, BRAZIL 3 1 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Xinjiang Medical

Seasonality of active tuberculosis notification from 2005 to 2014 in Xinjiang, China

Objectives Xinjiang is one of the highest TB-burdened provinces of China. A time-series analysis was conducted to evaluate the trend, seasonality of active TB in Xinjiang, and explore the underlying mechanism of TB seasonality by comparing the seasonal variations of different subgroups. Methods Monthly active TB cases from 2005 to 2014 in Xinjiang were analyzed by the X-12-ARIMA...

Leaf phosphorus content of Quercus wutaishanica increases with total soil potassium in the Loess Plateau

: Kaixiong Xing, Muyi Kang. Formal analysis: Kaixiong Xing, Chen Chen. Funding acquisition: Kaixiong Xing, Muyi Kang. Data curation: Kaixiong Xing, Mingfei Zhao, Chen Chen, Yuhang Wang, Feng Xue ... . Investigation: Kaixiong Xing, Mingfei Zhao, Chen Chen, Yuhang Wang, Feng Xue. Methodology: Kaixiong Xing, Mingfei Zhao, Yiping Zhang. Project administration: Kaixiong Xing, Han Y. H. Chen, Muyi Kang. Resources