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19 papers found.
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Self-forming TiBN Nanocomposite Multilayer Coating Prepared by Pulse Cathode Arc Method

Novel multilayer structured TiBN coatings were deposited on Si (100) substrate using TiBN complex cathode plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition technique (PIIID). The coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microcopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and ball-on-disk test. XRD results reveal that both...

Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the ST3GAL4 Gene with VWF Antigen and Factor VIII Activity

VWF is extensively glycosylated with biantennary core fucosylated glycans. Most N-linked and O-linked glycans on VWF are sialylated. FVIII is also glycosylated, with a glycan structure similar to that of VWF. ST3GAL sialyltransferases catalyze the transfer of sialic acids in the α2,3 linkage to termini of N- and O-glycans. This sialic acid modification is critical for VWF...

Template-assisted nanostructure fabrication by glancing angle deposition: a molecular dynamics study

In the present work, we investigate the pre-existing template-assisted glancing angle deposition of Al columnar structures on Cu substrate by means of molecular dynamics simulations, with a focus on examining the effect of deposition-induced template deformation on the morphologies of the fabricated structures. Our simulations demonstrate that the pre-existing templates...

Translational signatures and mRNA levels are highly correlated in human stably expressed genes

Background Gene expression is one of the most relevant biological processes of living cells. Due to the relative small population sizes, it is predicted that human gene sequences are not strongly influenced by selection towards expression efficiency. One of the major problems in estimating to what extent gene characteristics can be selected to maximize expression efficiency is...

The distribution and mutagenesis of short coding INDELs from 1,128 whole exomes

Background Identifying insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs) with high confidence has been intrinsically challenging in short-read sequencing data. Here we report our approach for improving INDEL calling accuracy by using a machine learning algorithm to combine call sets generated with three independent methods, and by leveraging the strengths of each individual pipeline...

Characterizing linkage disequilibrium and evaluating imputation power of human genomic insertion-deletion polymorphisms

Background Indels are an important cause of human variation and central to the study of human disease. The 1000 Genomes Project Low-Coverage Pilot identified over 1.3 million indels shorter than 50 bp, of which over 890 were identified as potentially disruptive variants. Yet, despite their ubiquity, the local genomic characteristics of indels remain unexplored. Results Herein we...

PacBio-LITS: a large-insert targeted sequencing method for characterization of human disease-associated chromosomal structural variations

Background Generation of long (>5 Kb) DNA sequencing reads provides an approach for interrogation of complex regions in the human genome. Currently, large-insert whole genome sequencing (WGS) technologies from Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) enable analysis of chromosomal structural variations (SVs), but the cost to achieve the required sequence coverage across the entire human...

Possible Race and Gender Divergence in Association of Genetic Variations with Plasma von Willebrand Factor: A Study of ARIC and 1000 Genome Cohorts

The synthesis, secretion and clearance of von Willebrand factor (VWF) are regulated by genetic variations in coding and promoter regions of the VWF gene. We have previously identified 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), primarily in introns that are associated with VWF antigen levels in subjects of European descent. In this study, we conducted race by gender analyses to...

Pash 3.0: A versatile software package for read mapping and integrative analysis of genomic and epigenomic variation using massively parallel DNA sequencing

Background Massively parallel sequencing readouts of epigenomic assays are enabling integrative genome-wide analyses of genomic and epigenomic variation. Pash 3.0 performs sequence comparison and read mapping and can be employed as a module within diverse configurable analysis pipelines, including ChIP-Seq and methylome mapping by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. Results Pash 3...

Atlas2 Cloud: a framework for personal genome analysis in the cloud

Yu 1 2 0 Bioinformatics Research Laboratory, Epigenome Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine , TX 77030 , USA 1 The Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor

An integrative variant analysis suite for whole exome next-generation sequencing data

Background Whole exome capture sequencing allows researchers to cost-effectively sequence the coding regions of the genome. Although the exome capture sequencing methods have become routine and well established, there is currently a lack of tools specialized for variant calling in this type of data. Results Using statistical models trained on validated whole-exome capture...

Launching genomics into the cloud: deployment of Mercury, a next generation sequence analysis pipeline

Background Massively parallel DNA sequencing generates staggering amounts of data. Decreasing cost, increasing throughput, and improved annotation have expanded the diversity of genomics applications in research and clinical practice. This expanding scale creates analytical challenges: accommodating peak compute demand, coordinating secure access for multiple analysts, and...

Population Genomic Analysis of 962 Whole Genome Sequences of Humans Reveals Natural Selection in Non-Coding Regions

Whole genome analysis in large samples from a single population is needed to provide adequate power to assess relative strengths of natural selection across different functional components of the genome. In this study, we analyzed next-generation sequencing data from 962 European Americans, and found that as expected approximately 60% of the top 1% of positive selection signals...

Detecting natural selection by empirical comparison to random regions of the genome

Historical episodes of natural selection can skew the frequencies of genetic variants, leaving a signature that can persist for many tens or even hundreds of thousands of years. However, formal tests for selection based on allele frequency skew require strong assumptions about demographic history and mutation, which are rarely well understood. Here, we develop an empirical...

Genetic diversity in India and the inference of Eurasian population expansion

Background Genetic studies of populations from the Indian subcontinent are of great interest because of India's large population size, complex demographic history, and unique social structure. Despite recent large-scale efforts in discovering human genetic variation, India's vast reservoir of genetic diversity remains largely unexplored. Results To analyze an unbiased sample of...

Characterization of single-nucleotide variation in Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

Background Rhesus macaques are the most widely utilized nonhuman primate model in biomedical research. Previous efforts have validated fewer than 900 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this species, which limits opportunities for genetic studies related to health and disease. Extensive information about SNPs and other genetic variation in rhesus macaques would facilitate...

Identification of genetic risk variants for deep vein thrombosis by multiplexed next-generation sequencing of 186 hemostatic/pro-inflammatory genes

Background Next-generation DNA sequencing is opening new avenues for genetic association studies in common diseases that, like deep vein thrombosis (DVT), have a strong genetic predisposition still largely unexplained by currently identified risk variants. In order to develop sequencing and analytical pipelines for the application of next-generation sequencing to complex diseases...

Positive Selection of a Pre-Expansion CAG Repeat of the Human SCA2 Gene

A region of approximately one megabase of human Chromosome 12 shows extensive linkage disequilibrium in Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe. This strikingly large linkage disequilibrium block was analyzed with statistical and experimental methods to determine whether natural selection could be implicated in shaping the current genome structure. Extended...

The functional spectrum of low-frequency coding variation

Background Rare coding variants constitute an important class of human genetic variation, but are underrepresented in current databases that are based on small population samples. Recent studies show that variants altering amino acid sequence and protein function are enriched at low variant allele frequency, 2 to 5%, but because of insufficient sample size it is not clear if the...