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Hematopoietic stem cells from induced pluripotent stem cells – considering the role of microRNA as a cell differentiation regulator

Although hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) therapy for hematological diseases can lead to a good outcome from the clinical point of view, the limited number of ideal donors, the comorbidity of patients and the increasing number of elderly patients may limit the application of this therapy. HSCs can be generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which requires the...

miR-195 inhibits macrophages pro-inflammatory profile and impacts the crosstalk with smooth muscle cells

BiotechHealth PhD Programme and MIA to L'Oreal-UNESCO-FCT for the Medal of Honor for Women in Science. Competing interests: Dr. George A. Calin and Dr. Mario Adolfo Barbosa are co-authors of this manuscript and ... Almeida. Data curation: Joao Paulo Bras. Formal analysis: Joao Paulo Bras, Andreia Machado Silva. Funding acquisition: George A. Calin, Mario Adolfo Barbosa. Investigation: Joao Paulo Bras, Andreia

Circulating miRNAs in sepsis—A network under attack: An in-silico prediction of the potential existence of miRNA sponges in sepsis

Contributions Conceptualization: Catalin Vasilescu, Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, George A. Calin. Data curation: Catalin Vasilescu, Mihnea Dragomir, Mihai Tanase, Raluca Purnichescu-Purtan, Meng Chen. 17 / 21 Formal ... analysis: Catalin Vasilescu, Mihnea Dragomir, Mihai Tanase, Raluca Purnichescu Purtan, Meng Chen. Funding acquisition: George A. Calin. Methodology: Catalin Vasilescu, Mihnea Dragomir. Project

Dendritic Cell-derived Extracellular Vesicles mediate Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell recruitment

Orchestration of bone repair processes requires crosstalk between different cell populations, including immune cells and mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). Extracellular vesicles (EV) as mediators of these interactions remain vastly unexplored. Here, we aimed to determine the mechanism of MSC recruitment by Dendritic Cells (DC), hypothesising that it would be mediated by EV...

OncomiR-10b hijacks the small molecule inhibitor linifanib in human cancers

Search for George A. Calin in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google Scholar Contributions G.A.C., E.P.N., S.Z. and I.B.N. supervised the project. G.A.C. was the principal supervisor of the project ... The authors declare no competing interests. Corresponding author Correspondence to George A. Calin. Electronic supplementary material Supplementary Dataset Rights and permissions Open Access

MicroRNA and Epigenetics: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Opportunities

Paloma del C. Monroig 0 George A. Calin 0 0 P. d. C. Monroig G. A. Calin (&) Department of Experimental Therapeutics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center , Houston, TX 77030, USA

Fractal-like kinetics of intracellular enzymatic reactions: a chemical framework of endotoxin tolerance and a possible non-specific contribution of macromolecular crowding to cross-tolerance

Background The response to endotoxin (LPS), and subsequent signal transduction lead to the production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by innate immune cells. Cells or organisms pretreated with endotoxin enter into a transient state of hyporesponsiveness, referred to as endotoxin tolerance (ET) which represents a particular case of negative preconditioning...

targetHub: a programmable interface for miRNA–gene interactions

Motivation: With the expansion of high-throughput technologies, understanding different kinds of genome-level data is a common task. MicroRNA (miRNA) is increasingly profiled using high-throughput technologies (microarrays or next-generation sequencing). The downstream analysis of miRNA targets can be difficult. Although there are many databases and algorithms to predict miRNA...

MicroRNAs miR-221 and miR-222: a new level of regulation in aggressive breast cancer

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial in the initiation and progression of tumors. A recent study has reported that the miRNAs miR-221 and miR-222 are involved in the promotion of an aggressive basal-like phenotype in breast cancer, functioning downstream of the RAS pathway and triggering epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. These new insights into the roles of miR-221/222 in breast...

Allele Frequencies of Variants in Ultra Conserved Elements Identify Selective Pressure on Transcription Factor Binding

Ultra-conserved genes or elements (UCGs/UCEs) in the human genome are extreme examples of conservation. We characterized natural variations in 2884 UCEs and UCGs in two distinct populations; Singaporean Chinese (n = 280) and Italian (n = 501) by using a pooled sample, targeted capture, sequencing approach. We identify, with high confidence, in these regions the abundance of rare...

Transcribed ultraconserved region 339 promotes carcinogenesis by modulating tumor suppressor microRNAs

Scholar Search for Dino Amadori in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google Scholar Search for Amelia Cimmino in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google Scholar Search for George A. Calin in:Nature ... interests The authors declare no competing financial interests. Corresponding authors Correspondence to George A. Calin or Muller Fabbri. Electronic supplementary material Supplementary Information

MicroRNAs and cancer: what we know and what we still have to learn

A report on the Keystone Symposia on MicroRNAs and Cancer, Keystone, Colorado, USA, 10-15 June 2009.

MiR-138 exerts anti-glioma efficacy by targeting immune checkpoints

Background Antibody therapeutic targeting of the immune checkpoints cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated molecule 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) has demonstrated marked tumor regression in clinical trials. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can modulate multiple gene transcripts including possibly more than one immune checkpoint and could be exploited as immune therapeutics.

Genetic control of mammalian T-cell proliferation with a synthetic RNA regulatory system - illusion or reality?

Synthetic RNA-based regulatory systems are used to program higher-level biological functions that could be exploited, among many applications, for in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Chen and colleagues have recently reported a significant technological advance by producing an RNA modular device based on a hammerhead ribozyme and successfully tested its ability to...

Epigenetic inactivation of miR-9 family microRNAs in chronic lymphocytic leukemia - implications on constitutive activation of NFκB pathway

Background The miR-9 family microRNAs have been identified as a tumor suppressor miRNA in cancers. We postulated that miR-9-1, miR-9-2 and miR-9-3 might be inactivated by DNA hypermethylation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Methods Methylation of miR-9-1, miR-9-2 and miR-9-3 was studied in eight normal controls including normal bone marrow, buffy coat, and CD19-sorted...

The multiMiR R package and database: integration of microRNA–target interactions along with their disease and drug associations

microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate expression by promoting degradation or repressing translation of target transcripts. miRNA target sites have been catalogued in databases based on experimental validation and computational prediction using various algorithms. Several online resources provide collections of multiple databases but need to be imported into other software, such as R, for...

Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription–3 Induces MicroRNA-155 Expression in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

MicroRNA (miR) abnormalities play a key role in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). High levels of miR-155 have been detected in human neoplasms, and overexpression of miR-155 has been found to induce lymphoma in mice. High levels of miR-155 were detected in CLL cells and STAT3, which is known to induce miR-21 and miR-181b-1 expression, is constitutively...

Plasma circulating-microRNA profiles are useful for assessing prognosis in patients with cytogenetically normal myelodysplastic syndromes

Myelodysplastic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of clonal bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and peripheral cytopenias. Chromosomal abnormalities and gene mutations have been shown to have essential roles in pathogenesis and correlate with prognosis. Molecular markers, however, are not integrated into currently used...

PD-L1 expression and prognostic impact in glioblastoma

Background Therapeutic targeting of the immune checkpoints cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4) and PD-1/PD-L1 has demonstrated tumor regression in clinical trials, and phase 2 trials are ongoing in glioblastoma (GBM). Previous reports have suggested that responses are more frequent in patients with tumors that express PD-L1; however, this has been disputed. At...