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17 papers found.
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TSH/IGF-1 Receptor Cross-Talk Rapidly Activates Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases in Multiple Cell Types

We previously showed that thyrotropin (TSH)/insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor cross-talk appears to be involved in Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) pathogenesis and upregulation of thyroid-specific genes in human thyrocytes. In orbital fibroblasts from GO patients, coadministration of TSH and IGF-1 induces synergistic increases in hyaluronan secretion. In human thyrocytes, TSH...

A Modified ELISA Accurately Measures Secretion of High Molecular Weight Hyaluronan (HA) by Graves

Excess production of hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid [HA]) in the retro-orbital space is a major component of Graves' ophthalmopathy, and regulation of HA production by orbital cells is a major research area. In most previous studies, HA was measured by ELISAs that used HA-binding proteins for detection and rooster comb HA as standards. We show that the binding efficiency of HA...

Bidirectional TSH and IGF-1 Receptor Cross Talk Mediates Stimulation of Hyaluronan Secretion by Graves

There is no pathogenetically linked medical therapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Lack of animal models and conflicting in vitro studies have hindered the development of such therapy. Recent reports propose that Graves' Igs bind to and activate thyrotropin receptors (TSHRs) and IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1Rs) on cells in orbital fat, stimulating hyaluronan (HA) secretion, a...

TSH/IGF-1 Receptor Cross Talk in Graves

The TSH receptor (TSHR) is considered the main target of stimulatory autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO); however, it has been suggested that stimulatory IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) autoantibodies also play a role.

Update in TSH Receptor Agonists and Antagonists

The physiological role of the TSH receptor (TSHR) as a major regulator of thyroid function is well understood, but TSHRs are also expressed in multiple normal extrathyroidal tissues, and the physiological roles of TSHRs in these tissues are unclear. Moreover, TSHRs play a major role in several pathological conditions including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid tumors...

A Selective TSH Receptor Antagonist Inhibits Stimulation of Thyroid Function in Female Mice

Because the TSH receptor (TSHR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid disease, a TSHR antagonist could be a novel treatment. We attempted to develop a small molecule, drug-like antagonist of TSHR signaling that is selective and active in vivo. We synthesized NCGC00242364 (ANTAG3) by chemical modification of a previously reported TSHR antagonist. We tested its...

A Small Molecule Antagonist Inhibits Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody-Induced Orbital Fibroblast Functions Involved in the Pathogenesis of Graves Ophthalmopathy

Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by increased adipogenesis and hyaluronan (HA) production by orbital fibroblasts. Circulating autoantibodies (thyroid-stimulating antibodies [TSAbs]) directed at the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) on these cells stimulate or augment these cellular processes. A recently developed drug-like small molecule inverse...

A Small Molecule Inverse Agonist for the Human Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor

Small molecule inverse agonists for the TSH receptor (TSHR) may be used as probes of the role of basal (or agonist-independent or constitutive) signaling and may have therapeutic potential as orally active drugs to inhibit basal signaling in patients with thyroid cancer and in some patients with hyperthyroidism. We describe the first small-molecule ligand [1;2-(3-((2,6...

A Small Molecule Inverse Agonist for the Human Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor

Small molecule inverse agonists for the TSH receptor (TSHR) may be used as probes of the role of basal (or agonist-independent or constitutive) signaling and may have therapeutic potential as orally active drugs to inhibit basal signaling in patients with thyroid cancer and in some patients with hyperthyroidism. We describe the first small-molecule ligand [1, 2-(3-((2,6...

Correlation between Basal Signaling and Internalization of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors: Evidence for Involvement of Similar Receptor Conformations

Previous studies have shown that rat thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor type 2 exhibits higher basal signaling activity and internalizes more rapidly upon agonist binding than rat TRH receptor type 1. The mouse TRH receptor type 2 (mR2) was recently cloned and, similar to its rat homolog, shows a higher basal signaling activity than mR1. Taking advantage of the high...

A Low-Molecular-Weight Antagonist for the Human Thyrotropin Receptor with Therapeutic Potential for Hyperthyroidism

Low-molecular-weight (LMW) antagonists for TSH receptor (TSHR) may have therapeutic potential as orally active drugs to block stimulating antibodies (TsAbs) in Graves’ hyperthyroidism. We describe an approach to identify LMW ligands for TSHR based on Org41841, a LMW partial agonist for the LH/choriogonadotropin receptor and TSHR. We used molecular modeling and functional...

Constitutive Activity of Native Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors Revealed Using a Protein Kinase C-Responsive Reporter Gene

The native TRH receptor (TRH-R), which is a G protein-coupled receptor that signals via the phosphoinositide transduction pathway, has been assumed to be inactive in the absence of agonist. In contrast, a mutant mouse TRH-R (C335Stop TRH-R) was shown previously to exhibit constitutive (or agonist-independent) signaling activity. In this report, we measured signaling activity of...

Juxtamembrane Regions in the Third Intracellular Loop of the Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Type 1 Are Important for Coupling to Gq

Juxtamembrane residues in the putative third intracellular (I3) loops of a number of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been shown to be important for coupling to G proteins. According to standard hydropathy analysis, the I3 loop of the mouse TRH receptor type 1 (mTRH-R1) is composed of 51 amino acids from position-213 to position-263. We constructed deletion and site...

Cloning and Characterization of the Chicken Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor

We report on the cloning of the full-length complementary DNA for the chicken TRH receptor. Although the TRH receptor has been cloned from several mammalian species, this is the first report from another vertebrate class. The ligand binding pocket, which is situated in the transmembrane helixes of the mouse and rat TRH receptors, is completely conserved in the chicken receptor...

TRH-R2 Exhibits Similar Binding and Acute Signaling but Distinct Regulation and Anatomic Distribution Compared with TRH-R1

TRH (thyroliberin) is a tripeptide (pGlu-His-ProNH2) that signals via G protein-coupled receptors. Until recently, only a single receptor for TRH was known (TRH-R1), but two groups identified a second receptor, TRH-R2. We independently discovered TRH-R2. Using an extensive set of TRH analogs, we found no differences in TRH-R1 and TRH-R2 binding or in acute stimulation of...