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Altruistic decisions are influenced by the allocation of monetary incentives in a pain-sharing game

analysis: Ye-Seul Lee. Funding acquisition: Younbyoung Chae. Methodology: Ye-Seul Lee, Hackjin Kim. Project administration: Hyun-Seo Song. 13 / 16 Resources: Younbyoung Chae. Supervision: Younbyoung Chae ... . Validation: Hackjin Kim. Visualization: Ye-Seul Lee. Writing ? original draft: Ye-Seul Lee. Writing ? review & editing: Hackjin Kim, Younbyoung Chae. 14 / 16 20. Aron-Dine A., Einav L., Finkelstein A

Social Observation Increases Functional Segregation between MPFC Subregions Predicting Prosocial Consumer Decisions

Although it is now well documented that observation by others can be a powerful elicitor of prosocial behaviour, the underlying neural mechanism is yet to be explored. In the present fMRI study, we replicated the previously reported observer effect in ethical consumption, in that participants were more likely to purchase social products that are sold to support people in need...

Distinctive amygdala subregions involved in emotion-modulated Stroop interference

Despite the well-known role of the amygdala in mediating emotional interference during tasks requiring cognitive resources, no definite conclusion has yet been reached regarding the differential roles of functionally and anatomically distinctive subcomponents of the amygdala in such processes. In this study, we examined female participants and attempted to separate the neural...

Overlapping Responses for the Expectation of Juice and Money Rewards in Human Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex

Although much is known about the neural substrates of reward, the question of whether expectation of different types of reinforcers engage distinct or overlapping brain circuitry has not been addressed definitively. In the present study, human subjects, while being scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging, performed a simple reward-based action selection task to obtain...

Is Avoiding an Aversive Outcome Rewarding? Neural Substrates of Avoidance Learning in the Human Brain

Avoidance learning poses a challenge for reinforcement-based theories of instrumental conditioning, because once an aversive outcome is successfully avoided an individual may no longer experience extrinsic reinforcement for their behavior. One possible account for this is to propose that avoiding an aversive outcome is in itself a reward, and thus avoidance behavior is positively...

In Vivo Transcription Dynamics of the Galactose Operon: A Study on the Promoter Transition from P1 to P2 at Onset of Stationary Phase

Quantitative analyses of the 5′ end of gal transcripts indicate that transcription from the galactose operon P1 promoter is higher during cell division. When cells are no longer dividing, however, transcription is initiated more often from the P2 promoter. Escherichia coli cells divide six times before the onset of the stationary phase when grown in LB containing 0.5% galactose...

A neural basis for the effect of candidate appearance on election outcomes

Election outcomes correlate with judgments based on a candidate's visual appearance, suggesting that the attributions viewers make based on appearance, so-called thin-slice judgments, influence voting. Yet, it is not known whether the effect of appearance on voting is more strongly influenced by positive or negative attributions, nor which neural mechanisms subserve this effect...