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Stability of Dihydroartemisinin–Piperaquine Tablet Halves During Prolonged Storage Under Tropical Conditions

, Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom, E-mails: evamaria. and anja. . Harparkash Kaur, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, E

Quality of the Antibiotics—Amoxicillin and Co-Trimoxazole from Ghana, Nigeria, and the United Kingdom

. Authors’ addresses: Ifeyinwa Fadeyi, Mirza Lalani, Naiela Mailk, Albert Van Wyk, and Harparkash Kaur, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, E-mails: , , naiela-begum ., , and

Personal Protection of Permethrin-Treated Clothing against Aedes aegypti, the Vector of Dengue and Zika Virus, in the Laboratory

Background The dengue and Zika viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are most active during day light hours and feed both in and outside of the household. Personal protection technologies such as insecticide-treated clothing could provide individual protection. Here we assessed the efficacy of permethrin-treated clothing on personal protection in...

Chemical and Bioassay Techniques to Authenticate Quality of the Anti-Leishmanial Drug Miltefosine

Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London , London , United Kingdom; Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) , Geneva , Switzerland 2 Authors' addresses: Harparkash Kaur, Karin Seifert, and ... relatively quickly to determine the quality of drugs to treat fatal diseases. Acknowledgments: Harparkash Kaur is grateful to the Gates Malaria Partnership for the provision of support for the bio-analytical

Fake anti-malarials: start with the facts

upon which local regulators could take action. Harparkash Kaur, the lead investigator of the ACTc-DQP presented the findings on behalf of the drug quality teams [ 11 ]. The ACTc-DQP collected 10,079 ... been on counterfeit or falsified drugs, especially anti-malarials, however these Data Field Surveys Drug Samples Purchased All collected samples LSHTM (UK) Harparkash Kaur • Sample informa on logged

Evaluation of ICON Maxx, a long-lasting treatment kit for mosquito nets: experimental hut trials against anopheline mosquitoes in Tanzania

Background Insecticide-treated nets are the primary method of preventing malaria. To remain effective, the pyrethroid insecticide must withstand multiple washes over the lifetime of the net. ICON® Maxx is a ‘dip-it-yourself’ kit for long-lasting treatment of polyester nets. The twin-sachet kit contains a slow-release capsule suspension of lambda-cyhalothrin plus binding agent. To...

Substandard Antimalarials Available in Afghanistan: A Case for Assessing the Quality of Drugs in Resource Poor Settings

Gates Foundation to the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Authors’ addresses: Mirza Lalani, Harparkash Kaur, Naiela Mailk, Albert van Wyk, and Toby Leslie, London School of Hygiene & Tropical

Assessing the quality of anti-malarial drugs from Gabonese pharmacies using the MiniLab ® : a field study

Background Recent studies alluded to the alarming scale of poor anti-malarial drug quality in malaria-endemic countries, but also illustrated the major geographical gaps in data on anti-malarial drug quality from endemic countries. Data are particularly scarce from Central Africa, although it carries the highest burden of malaria. The aim of this medicine quality field survey was...

HIV-positive Nigerian adults harbour significantly higher serum lumefantrine levels than HIV negative individuals seven days after treatment for Plasmodium falciparum infection

Ifevinwa Chijioke-Nwauche 0 Albert van Wyk Chijioke Nwauche Harparkash Kaur Colin J Sutherland 0 Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Management, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Port

Simple Field Assays to Check Quality of Current Artemisinin-Based Antimalarial Combination Formulations

Introduction Malaria continues to be one of the major public health problems in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Artemisinin derivatives (ARTs; artesunate, artemether, and dihydroartemisinin) derived from the herb, Artemisia annua, are the most effective antimalarial drugs available providing rapid cures. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has recommended that all antimalarials...

Evaluation of the long-lasting insecticidal net Interceptor LN: laboratory and experimental hut studies against anopheline and culicine mosquitoes in northeastern Tanzania

Background Long lasting insecticidal nets (LN) are a primary method of malaria prevention. Before new types of LN are approved they need to meet quality and efficacy standards set by the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme. The process of evaluation has three phases. In Phase I the candidate LN must meet threshold bioassay criteria after 20 standardized washes. In Phase II washed and...

Evaluating the feasibility of using insecticide quantification kits (IQK) for estimating cyanopyrethroid levels for indoor residual spraying in Vanuatu

Background The quality of routine indoor residual spraying (IRS) operations is rarely assessed because of the limited choice of methods available for quantifying insecticide content in the field. This study, therefore, evaluated a user-friendly, rapid colorimetric assay for detecting insecticide content after routine IRS operations were conducted. Methods This study was conducted...

Laboratory and experimental hut evaluation of a long-lasting insecticide treated blanket for protection against mosquitoes

Background Long-lasting insecticide treated blankets (LLIBs) may provide additional protection against malaria where use of long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) is low or impractical such as in disaster or emergency situations. Methods Initial efficacy testing of a new candidate LLIB was carried out at LSHTM and KCMUCo, before and after washing, in cone and ball bioassays and...

A Repeat Random Survey of the Prevalence of Falsified and Substandard Antimalarials in the Lao PDR: A Change for the Better

Malaria, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, E-mails: , , and . Elizabeth Louise Allan and Harparkash Kaur, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), London

Quality of Artemisinin-Based Combination Formulations for Malaria Treatment: Prevalence and Risk Factors for Poor Quality Medicines in Public Facilities and Private Sector Drug Outlets in Enugu, Nigeria

Background Artemisinin-based combination therapies are recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, yet medication must be of good quality for efficacious treatment. A recent meta-analysis reported 35% (796/2,296) of antimalarial drug samples from 21 Sub-Saharan African countries, purchased from outlets...

Alternative Treatments for Indoor Residual Spraying for Malaria Control in a Village with Pyrethroid- and DDT-Resistant Vectors in The Gambia

BackgroundMalaria vector control is threatened by resistance to pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides used for treating bed nets. The second major vector control method is indoor residual spraying with pyrethroids or the organochloride DDT. However, resistance to pyrethroids frequently confers resistance to DDT. Therefore, alternative insecticides are urgently needed...

Residual Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia in Kenyan Children After Artemisinin-Combination Therapy Is Associated With Increased Transmission to Mosquitoes and Parasite Recurrence

Background. Parasite clearance time after artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) may be increasing in Asian and African settings. The association between parasite clearance following ACT and transmissibility is currently unknown. Methods. We determined parasite clearance dynamics by duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in samples collected in the first 3 days...

Quality of anti-malarial drugs provided by public and private healthcare providers in south-east Nigeria

Background There is little existing knowledge about actual quality of drugs provided by different providers in Nigeria and in many sub-Saharan African countries. Such information is important for improving malaria treatment that will help in the development and implementation of actions designed to improve the quality of treatment. The objective of the study was to determine the...

A Nationwide Survey of the Quality of Antimalarials in Retail Outlets in Tanzania

Introduction Retail pharmaceutical products are commonly used to treat fever and malaria in sub-Saharan African countries. Small scale studies have suggested that poor quality antimalarials are widespread throughout the region, but nationwide data are not available that could lead to generalizable conclusions about the extent to which poor quality drugs are available in African...

Evaluation of KO-Tab 1-2-3®: a wash-resistant 'dip-it-yourself' insecticide formulation for long-lasting treatment of mosquito nets

Introduction Insecticide-treated nets (ITN) are an important method of preventing malaria. To remain effective, they need to be re-treated with pyrethroid insecticide at approximately yearly intervals. Systems for re-treating nets in Africa are limited, and the vast majority of nets in use have never been treated or were treated only once. Bayer Environmental Science (BES) has...