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130 papers found.
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Visualization of spatiotemporal dynamics of human glioma stem cell invasion

Glioblastoma exhibits phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity, aggressive invasiveness, therapeutic resistance, and tumor recurrence, which can be explained by the existence of glioma stem cells (GSCs). In this study, we visualized the spatiotemporal dynamics of invasion of human GSCs in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model using time-lapse imaging of organotypic brain slice cultures...

Control of directionality of chromatin folding for the inter- and intra-domain contacts at the Tfap2c – Bmp7 locus

Contact domains of chromatin serve as a fundamental unit to regulate action of enhancers for target genes. Looping between a pair of CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-binding sites in convergent orientations underlies the formation of contact domains, while those in divergent orientations establish domain boundaries. However, every CTCF site is not necessarily engaged in loop or...

Role of cyclooxygenase-2-mediated prostaglandin E2-prostaglandin E receptor 4 signaling in cardiac reprogramming

Direct cardiac reprogramming from fibroblasts can be a promising approach for disease modeling, drug screening, and cardiac regeneration in pediatric and adult patients. However, postnatal and adult fibroblasts are less efficient for reprogramming compared with embryonic fibroblasts, and barriers to cardiac reprogramming associated with aging remain undetermined. In this study...

The Japan Monkey Centre Primates Brain Imaging Repository for comparative neuroscience: an archive of digital records including records for endangered species

Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computational analysis technology have enabled comparisons among various primate brains in a three-dimensional electronic format. Results from comparative studies provide information about common features across primates and species-specific features of neuroanatomy. Investigation of various species of non-human primates is...

The pathogenesis linked to coenzyme Q10 insufficiency in iPSC-derived neurons from patients with multiple-system atrophy

Takefumi Sone Mitsuru Ishikawa YorihiroYamamoto Yumi Kanegae Yuhki Nakatake Kent Imaizumi Hiroyuki Ishiura Shoji Tsuji Hideyuki Okano OPEN Multiple-system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease

Stem cells purified from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural crest-like cells promote peripheral nerve regeneration

Strategies for therapeutic cell transplantation have been assessed for use in the treatment of massive peripheral nerve defects. To support safe and efficient cell transplantation, we have focused on the purification of cells using cell surface markers. Our group previously reported low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (LNGFR)- and thymocyte antigen-1 (THY-1)-positive neural...

The Brain/MINDS 3D digital marmoset brain atlas

We present a new 3D digital brain atlas of the non-human primate, common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), with MRI and coregistered Nissl histology data. To the best of our knowledge this is the first comprehensive digital 3D brain atlas of the common marmoset having normalized multi-modal data, cortical and sub-cortical segmentation, and in a common file format (NIfTI). The...

A noncoding RNA containing a SINE-B1 motif associates with meiotic metaphase chromatin and has an indispensable function during spermatogenesis

A search for early response genes that are activated following germ cell induction from mouse embryonic stem cells in vitro led us to the isolation of a long noncoding RNA that contains a SINE (short interspersed element)-B1F motif that was named R53. In situ hybridization and northern blot analyses revealed that the R53 subfragment RNA bears a B1F motif, is processed from the...

Unidirectional monosynaptic connections from auditory areas to the primary visual cortex in the marmoset monkey

Until the late twentieth century, it was believed that different sensory modalities were processed by largely independent pathways in the primate cortex, with cross-modal integration only occurring in specialized polysensory areas. This model was challenged by the finding that the peripheral representation of the primary visual cortex (V1) receives monosynaptic connections from...

JMJD1C Exhibits Multiple Functions in Epigenetic Regulation during Spermatogenesis

Jmjd1C is one of the Jmjd1 family genes that encode putative demethylases against histone H3K9 and non-histone proteins and has been proven to play an indispensable role in mouse spermatogenesis. Here, we analyzed a newly-bred transgenic mouse strain carrying a Jmjd1C loss-of-function allele in which a β-geo cassette was integrated into the intron of the Jmjd1C locus. Jmjd1C gene...

Heterochronic microRNAs in temporal specification of neural stem cells: application toward rejuvenation

Plasticity is a critical factor enabling stem cells to contribute to the development and regeneration of tissues. In the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), neural stem cells (NSCs) that are defined by their capability for self-renewal and differentiation into neurons and glia, are present in the ventricular neuroaxis throughout life. However, the differentiation potential of...

Down-regulation of ghrelin receptors on dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra contributes to Parkinson’s disease-like motor dysfunction

Ghrelin exerts a wide range of physiological actions throughout the body and appears to be a promising target for disease therapy. Endogenous ghrelin receptors (GHSRs) are present in extrahypothalamic sites including the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), which is related to phenotypic dysregulation or frank degeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here we found a dramatic...

CHD7 promotes proliferation of neural stem cells mediated by MIF

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays an important role in supporting the proliferation and/or survival of murine neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs); however, the downstream effectors of this factor remain unknown. Here, we show that MIF increases the expression of Pax6 and Chd7 in NSPCs in vitro. During neural development, the chromatin remodeling factor Chd7...

CHD7 promotes proliferation of neural stem cells mediated by MIF

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays an important role in supporting the proliferation and/or survival of murine neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs); however, the downstream effectors of this factor remain unknown. Here, we show that MIF increases the expression of Pax6 and Chd7 in NSPCs in vitro. During neural development, the chromatin remodeling factor Chd7...

Isolation of dental pulp stem cells with high osteogenic potential

Dental pulp stem cells/progenitor cells (DPSCs) can be easily obtained and can have excellent proliferative and mineralization potentials. Therefore, many studies have investigated the isolation and bone formation of DPSCs. In most previous reports, human DPSCs were traditionally isolated by exploiting their ability to adhere to plastic tissue culture dishes. DPSCs isolated by...

Isolation of dental pulp stem cells with high osteogenic potential

Dental pulp stem cells/progenitor cells (DPSCs) can be easily obtained and can have excellent proliferative and mineralization potentials. Therefore, many studies have investigated the isolation and bone formation of DPSCs. In most previous reports, human DPSCs were traditionally isolated by exploiting their ability to adhere to plastic tissue culture dishes. DPSCs isolated by...

Developmental trajectory of the corpus callosum from infancy to the juvenile stage: Comparative MRI between chimpanzees and humans

How brains develop during early life is one of the most important topics in neuroscience because it underpins the neuronal functions that mature during this period. A comparison of the neurodevelopmental patterns among humans and nonhuman primates is essential to infer evolutional changes in neuroanatomy that account for higher-order brain functions, especially those specific to...