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10 papers found.
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Blocking a vicious cycle nNOS/peroxynitrite/AMPK by S-nitrosoglutathione: implication for stroke therapy

Background Stroke immediately sets into motion sustained excitotoxicity and calcium dysregulation, causing aberrant activity in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and an imbalance in the levels of nitric oxide (NO). Drugs targeting nNOS-originated toxicity may therefore reduce stroke-induced damage. Recently, we observed that a redox-modulating agent of the NO metabolome, S...

Oral administration of cytosolic PLA2 inhibitor arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone ameliorates cauda equina compression injury in rats

Background Phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-derived proinflammatory lipid mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotrienes B4 (LTB4), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and free fatty acids (FFA) are implicated in spinal cord injury (SCI) pathologies. Reducing the levels of these injurious bioactive lipid mediators is reported to ameliorate SCI. However, the specific role of the group...

Reduction of lipoxidative load by secretory phospholipase A2 inhibition protects against neurovascular injury following experimental stroke in rat

Background In animal models, ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury triggers membrane lipid degradation and accumulation of lipoxidative exacerbations in neurovascular unit, leading to blood brain barrier (BBB) damage and neurologic deficits. In this study, we investigated whether impeding membrane lipid breakdown by inhibiting secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) activity reduces BBB...

S-Nitrosoglutathione reduces oxidative injury and promotes mechanisms of neurorepair following traumatic brain injury in rats

Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces primary and secondary damage in both the endothelium and the brain parenchyma, collectively termed the neurovascular unit. While neurons die quickly by necrosis, a vicious cycle of secondary injury in endothelial cells exacerbates the initial injury in the neurovascular unit following TBI. In activated endothelial cells, excessive...

Administration of S-nitrosoglutathione after traumatic brain injury protects the neurovascular unit and reduces secondary injury in a rat model of controlled cortical impact

Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of preventable death and serious morbidity in young adults. This complex pathological condition is characterized by significant blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage that stems from cerebral ischemia, inflammation, and redox imbalances in the traumatic penumbra of the injured brain. Once trauma has occurred, combating these...

5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR) attenuates the expression of LPS- and Aβ peptide-induced inflammatory mediators in astroglia

Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology shows characteristic 'plaques' rich in amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide deposits. Inflammatory process-related proteins such as pro-inflammatory cytokines have been detected in AD brain suggesting that an inflammatory immune reaction also plays a role in the pathogenesis of AD. Glial cells in culture respond to LPS and Aβ stimuli by...

Cytotoxic effect of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR) on childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells: implication for targeted therapy

Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common hematological malignancy affecting children. Despite significant progress and success in the treatment of ALL, a significant number of children continue to relapse and for them, outcome remains poor. Therefore, the search for novel therapeutic approaches is warranted. The aim of this study was to investigate the AMP...

Inhibition of NF-κB activation by 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors protects brain against injury in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia

Mushfiquddin Khan (MK) and Inderjit Singh. MK and Manu Jatana (MJ) wrote the manuscript. Shailendra Giri directed and performed the in vitro experiments. Elango Chinnasamy, Manu Jatana and Mubeen A Ansari

Inhibition of NF-κB activation by 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors protects brain against injury in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia

Mushfiquddin Khan (MK) and Inderjit Singh. MK and Manu Jatana (MJ) wrote the manuscript. Shailendra Giri directed and performed the in vitro experiments. Elango Chinnasamy, Manu Jatana and Mubeen A Ansari

AICAR inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3L1 and restores metabolic alterations in diet-induced obesity mice model

Background Obesity is one of the principal causative factors involved in the development of metabolic syndrome. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor that regulates cellular metabolism. The role of AMP-activated protein kinase in adipocyte differentiation is not completely understood, therefore, we examined the effect of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D...