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Genetic polymorphism and natural selection in the C-terminal 42 kDa region of merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) among Plasmodium knowlesi samples from Malaysia

The merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) gene encodes for a leading malaria vaccine candidate antigen. However, its extensive polymorphic nature represents a major obstacle to the development of a protective vaccine. Previously, a pilot study was carried out to explore the sequence variation of the C-terminal 42 kDa fragment within P. knowlesi MSP-1 gene (PkMSP-142) based on 12...

Vertical stratification of adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) within a tropical rainforest in Sabah, Malaysia

Background Malaria cases caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques, are increasing rapidly in Sabah, Malaysia. One hypothesis is that this increase is associated with changes in land use. A study was carried out to identify the anopheline vectors present in different forest types and to observe the human landing...

Detection of Wolbachia in Aedes albopictus and Their Effects on Chikungunya Virus

, and Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, E-mail: . Indra Vythilingam and Yvonne A. L. Lim, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine

Simian malaria in wild macaques: first report from Hulu Selangor district, Selangor, Malaysia

Background Malaria is a vector-borne parasitic disease which is prevalent in many developing countries. Recently, it has been found that Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite can be life-threatening to humans. Long-tailed macaques, which are widely distributed in Malaysia, are the natural hosts for simian malaria, including P. knowlesi. The aim of the present study was...

Insecticide resistance and its underlying mechanisms in field populations of Aedes aegypti adults (Diptera: Culicidae) in Singapore

Vythilingam Chow-Yang Lee Lee-Ching Ng 1 0 06-05/08 , Helios Block, S (138667) , Singapore 1 Environmental Health Institute, National Environment Agency , 11 Biopolis Way Background: In Singapore, dose

Colonization of Anopheles cracens: a malaria vector of emerging importance

Background Anopheles cracens has been incriminated as a vector for the simian malaria parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi, that is the fifth Plasmodium species infecting humans. Little experimental data exists on this mosquito species due to the lack of its availability in laboratories. Findings The population of An. cracens, collected from Kuala Lipis, Pahang was maintained at the...

Predicting the geographical distributions of the macaque hosts and mosquito vectors of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in forested and non-forested areas

Samejima 19 Timothy G. O'Brien 14 Colin R. Trainor 8 9 Yuzuru Hamada 6 Anthony J. Giordano 4 7 Margaret F. Kinnaird 14 Iqbal R. F. Elyazar 5 Marianne E. Sinka 13 Indra Vythilingam 2 Michael J. Bangs 1 3

Increased detection of Plasmodium knowlesi in Sandakan division, Sabah as revealed by PlasmoNex™

Background Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria parasite that is widespread in humans in Malaysian Borneo. However, little is known about the incidence and distribution of this parasite in the Sandakan division, Malaysian Borneo. Therefore, the aim of the present epidemiological study was to investigate the incidence and distribution of P. knowlesi as well as other Plasmodium...

Entomologic investigation of Plasmodium knowlesi vectors in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia

Adela I Jiram 0 Indra Vythilingam 0 Yusuf M NoorAzian Yusri M Yusof Abdul H Azahari Mun-Yik Fong 0 0 Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya , 50603, Kuala Lumpur

Plasmodium knowlesi malaria an emerging public health problem in Hulu Selangor, Selangor, Malaysia (2009–2013): epidemiologic and entomologic analysis

Background While transmission of the human Plasmodium species has declined, a significant increase in Plasmodium knowlesi/Plasmodium malariae cases was reported in Hulu Selangor, Selangor, Malaysia. Thus, a study was undertaken to determine the epidemiology and the vectors involved in the transmission of knowlesi malaria. Methods Cases of knowlesi/malariae malaria in the Hulu...

Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Vietnam: some clarifications

A recently published comment on a report of Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Vietnam states that this may not accurately represent the situation in the study area because the PCR primers used may cross-hybridize with Plasmodium vivax. Nevertheless, P. knowlesi infections have been confirmed by sequencing. In addition, a neighbour-joining tree based on the 18S S-Type SSUrRNA gene...

Bionomics of Anopheles latens in Kapit, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo in relation to the transmission of zoonotic simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi

Background A large focus of human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques was discovered in the Kapit Division of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. A study was initiated to identify the vectors of malaria, to elucidate where transmission is taking place and to understand the bionomics of the vectors in Kapit. Methods...

Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of Chikungunya Virus of Different Genotypes from Malaysia

Background Mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has recently re-emerged globally. The epidemic East/Central/South African (ECSA) strains have spread for the first time to Asia, which previously only had endemic Asian strains. In Malaysia, the ECSA strain caused an extensive nationwide outbreak in 2008, while the Asian strains only caused limited outbreaks prior to this. To...

Human Plasmodium knowlesi infections in young children in central Vietnam

Background Considering increasing reports on human infections by Plasmodium knowlesi in Southeast Asian countries, blood samples collected during two large cross-sectional malariometric surveys carried out in a forested area of central Vietnam in 2004 and 2005 were screened for this parasite. Methods Blood samples collected at the 2004 survey and positive for Plasmodium malariae...

Plasmodium knowlesi in humans, macaques and mosquitoes in peninsular Malaysia

Background Since a large focus of human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig tailed macaques, was reported in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, it was pertinent to study the situation in peninsular Malaysia. A study was thus initiated to screen human cases of Plasmodium malariae using molecular techniques, to determine the...

Entomologic and molecular investigation into Plasmodium vivax transmission in Singapore, 2009

Background Singapore has been certified malaria free since November 1982 by the World Health Organization and despite occasional local transmission, the country has maintained the standing. In 2009, three clusters of malaria cases were reported in Singapore. Methods Epidemiological, entomological and molecular studies were carried out to investigate the three clusters, namely...