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Kinetics and Performance of Raw and Torrefied Biomass in a Continuous Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier

This paper is an experimental study of the kinetics of gasification of olive kernel by using a thermogravimetric fluidized bed reactor technique. Gasification of ‘as received’ and torrefied olive kernels were investigated in a lab-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, operating at up to 3.2 kg/h. The effect of bed temperature between 550 and 750 °C in 50 °C increments on the...

A transwell assay that excludes exosomes for assessment of tunneling nanotube-mediated intercellular communication

Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are naturally-occurring filamentous actin-based membranous extensions that form across a wide spectrum of mammalian cell types to facilitate long-range intercellular communication. Valid assays are needed to accurately assess the downstream effects of TNT-mediated transfer of cellular signals in vitro. We recently reported a modified transwell assay...

A Comparison of the Pyrolysis of Olive Kernel Biomass in Fluidised and Fixed Bed Conditions

The use of thermogravimetric analysis to describe biomass kinetics often uses bench top thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) analysers which are only capable of low heating rates. The aim of this research was to compare experimental fast pyrolysis of Olive kernels in a bespoke laboratory thermogravimetric fluidised bed reactor (TGFBR) characterised by rapid heating rates at high flow...

Mitochondrial MicroRNAs and Their Potential Role in Cell Function

therapeutic intervention. Compliance with Ethics Guidelines Conflict of Interest Pedro M. Borralho, Ceclia M.P. Rodrigues, and Clifford J. Steer have nothing to declare. Human and Animal Rights and Informed

Changes in Colonic Bile Acid Composition following Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Are Sufficient to Control Clostridium difficile Germination and Growth

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI), but its mechanisms remain poorly understood. Emerging evidence suggests that gut bile acids have significant influence on the physiology of C. difficile, and therefore on patient susceptibility to recurrent infection. We analyzed spore germination of 10...

Paternal and Maternal Influences on Differences in Birth Weight between Europeans and Indians Born in the UK

Background Ethnic groups differ significantly in adult physique and birth weight. We aimed to improve understanding of maternal versus paternal contributions to ethnic differences in birth weight, by comparing the offspring of same-ethnic versus mixed-ethnic unions amongst Europeans and South Asian Indians in the UK. Methodology and principal findings We used data from the UK...

β-Globin Sleeping Beauty Transposon Reduces Red Blood Cell Sickling in a Patient-Derived CD34+-Based In Vitro Model

. Steer 0 Christopher B Doering, Emory University School of Medicine, United States of America 0 1 Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Minnesota

Disease Genes and Gene Regulation by microRNAs

Robert Roberts 0 Clifford J. Steer 0 0 R. Roberts The John & Jennifer Ruddy Canadian Cardiovascular Genetics Centre , Ottawa, ON , Canada K1Y 4W7 1 ) Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota

miR-34a Regulates Mouse Neural Stem Cell Differentiation

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) participate in the regulation of several biological processes, including cell differentiation. Recently, miR-34a has been implicated in the differentiation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells, human erythroleukemia cells, and mouse embryonic stem cells. In addition, members of the miR-34 family have been identified as direct p53 targets...

Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury by Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid in Rat and Cell Culture Models

. Rodrigues 0 Clifford J. Steer 0 Demetrios Vavvas, Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, United States of America 0 1 Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School

Combinatorial Treatment of DNA and Chromatin-Modifying Drugs Cause Cell Death in Human and Canine Osteosarcoma Cell Lines

Downregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) at the 14q32 locus stabilizes the expression of cMYC, thus significantly contributing to osteosarcoma (OS) pathobiology. Here, we show that downregulation of 14q32 miRNAs is epigenetically regulated. The predicted promoter regions of miRNA clusters at 14q32 locus showed no recurrent patterns of differential methylation, but Saos2 cells showed...

Apoptosis-associated microRNAs are modulated in mouse, rat and human neural differentiation

Background MicroRNAs (miRs or miRNAs) regulate several biological processes in the cell. However, evidence for miRNAs that control the differentiation program of specific neural cell types has been elusive. Recently, we have shown that apoptosis-associated factors, such as p53 and caspases participate in the differentiation process of mouse neural stem (NS) cells. To identify...

Efficient recovery of proteins from multiple source samples after trizol ® or trizol ® LS RNA extraction and long-term storage

Background Simultaneous isolation of nucleic acids and proteins from a single biological sample facilitates meaningful data interpretation and reduces time, cost and sampling errors. This is particularly relevant for rare human and animal specimens, often scarce, and/or irreplaceable. TRIzol® and TRIzol®LS are suitable for simultaneous isolation of RNA, DNA and proteins from the...

Erythroid-Specific Expression of β-globin from Sleeping Beauty-Transduced Human Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells

Gene therapy for sickle cell disease will require efficient delivery of a tightly regulated and stably expressed gene product to provide an effective therapy. In this study we utilized the non-viral Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system using the SB100X hyperactive transposase to transduce human cord blood CD34+ cells with DsRed and a hybrid IHK–β-globin transgene. IHK...

Unbound E2F modulates TGF-β1-induced apoptosis in HuH-7 cells

Guangsheng Fan Xiaoming Ma Betsy T. Kren Clifford J. Steer ) 0 0 Genetics, Cell Biology, and Development, University of Minnesota Medical School , Minneapolis, MN 55455 , USA - E2F is an important

miRNA Expression in Colon Polyps Provides Evidence for a Multihit Model of Colon Cancer

Changes in miRNA expression are a common feature in colon cancer. Those changes occurring in the transition from normal to adenoma and from adenoma to carcinoma, however, have not been well defined. Additionally, miRNA changes among tumor subgroups of colon cancer have also not been adequately evaluated. In this study, we examined the global miRNA expression in 315 samples that...

Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling Reveals MicroRNA-Correlated Genes and Biological Processes in Human Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines

Background Expression level of many genes shows abundant natural variation in human populations. The variations in gene expression are believed to contribute to phenotypic differences. Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the key regulators of gene expression. However, past studies have focused on the miRNA target genes and used loss- or gain-of-function...

Modification of hepatic genomic DNA using RNA/DNA oligonucleotides

The ideal gene therapy is one that repairs the precise genetic defect without additional modification of the genome. Such a strategy has been developed for correcting single nucleotide mutations by using RNA/DNA oligonucleotides, or chimeraplasts. This approach for in situ repair is based on the delivery of exogenous DNA designed to mediate genomic base conversion, insertion, or...

Human colon cancer profiles show differential microRNA expression depending on mismatch repair status and are characteristic of undifferentiated proliferative states

Wang Tom C Smyrk Cecilia MP Rodrigues Stephen N Thibodeau Clifford J Steer Background: Colon cancer arises from the accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations to normal colonic