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Tetanus in Southern Vietnam: Current Situation

In Vietnam, there are no accurate data on tetanus incidence to allow assessment of disease burden or vaccination program efficacy. We analyzed age structure of 786 tetanus cases admitted to a tertiary referral center in Vietnam for three separate years during an 18-year period to examine the impact of tetanus prevention programs, namely the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI...

Mycobacterium fortuitum skin infections after subcutaneous injections with Vietnamese traditional medicine: a case report

Background Iatrogenic skin and soft tissue infections by rapidly growing mycobacteria are described with increasing frequency, especially among immunocompromised patients. Case presentation Here, we present an immunocompetent patient with extensive Mycobacterium fortuitum skin and soft tissue infections after subcutaneous injections to relieve joint pains by a Vietnamese...

A successful antimicrobial regime for Chromobacterium violaceum induced bacteremia

Background Chromobacterium violaceum is a proteobacterium found in soil and water in tropical regions. The organism rarely causes infection in humans, yet can cause a severe systemic infection by entering the bloodstream via an open wound. Case presentation We recently identified a case of severe bacteremia caused by Chromobacterium violaceum at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases...

A cohort study to define the age-specific incidence and risk factors of Shigella diarrhoeal infections in Vietnamese children: a study protocol

Background Shigella spp. are one of the most common causes of paediatric dysentery globally, responsible for a substantial proportion of diarrhoeal disease morbidity and mortality, particularly in industrialising regions. Alarming levels of antimicrobial resistance are now reported in S. flexneri and S. sonnei, hampering treatment options. Little is known, however, about the...

The Influence of Reduced Susceptibility to Fluoroquinolones in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi on the Clinical Response to Ofloxacin Therapy

Background Infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones has been associated with fluoroquinolone treatment failure. We studied the relationship between ofloxacin treatment response and the ofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the infecting isolate. Individual patient data from seven randomised...

A Clinical and Epidemiological Investigation of the First Reported Human Infection With the Zoonotic Parasite Trypanosoma evansi in Southeast Asia

Background. Trypanosoma is a genus of unicellular parasitic flagellate protozoa. Trypanosoma brucei species and Trypanosoma cruzi are the major agents of human trypanosomiasis; other Trypanosoma species can cause human disease, but are rare. In March 2015, a 38-year-old woman presented to a healthcare facility in southern Vietnam with fever, headache, and arthralgia. Microscopic...

An oral preparation of Lactobacillus acidophilus for the treatment of uncomplicated acute watery diarrhoea in Vietnamese children: study protocol for a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial

Background Diarrhoeal disease is a major global health problem, particularly affecting children under the age of 5 years. Besides oral rehydration solution, probiotics are also commonly prescribed to children with acute watery diarrhoea in some settings. Results from randomised clinical trials (RCTs) in which investigators studied the effect of probiotics on diarrhoeal symptoms...

The Co-Selection of Fluoroquinolone Resistance Genes in the Gut Flora of Vietnamese Children

Antimicrobial consumption is one of the major contributing factors facilitating the development and maintenance of bacteria exhibiting antimicrobial resistance. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, such as the qnr family, can be horizontally transferred and contribute to reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. We performed an observational study, investigating...

Three Adult Cases of Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis in Vietnam

Rogier van Doorn and colleagues from Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam present a Learning Forum involving three unusual cases of patients with listerial meningitis.

The Emergence of Rotavirus G12 and the Prevalence of Enteric Viruses in Hospitalized Pediatric Diarrheal Patients in Southern Vietnam

Authors' addresses:PhanVuTra My,NguyenVan Minh Hoang,Nguyen Thanh Vinh, James I. Campbell, Jeremy Farrar, and Stephen Baker, Enteric Infections Group, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Wellcome Trust Major

The antimicrobial resistance patterns and associated determinants in Streptococcus suis isolated from humans in southern Vietnam, 1997-2008

Background Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen and is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adults in Vietnam. Systematic data on the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of S. suis strains isolated from human cases are lacking. We studied antimicrobial resistance and associated resistance determinants in S. suis isolated from patients with meningitis in...

The sensitivity of real-time PCR amplification targeting invasive Salmonella serovars in biological specimens

Background PCR amplification for the detection of pathogens in biological material is generally considered a rapid and informative diagnostic technique. Invasive Salmonella serovars, which cause enteric fever, can be commonly cultured from the blood of infected patients. Yet, the isolation of invasive Salmonella serovars from blood is protracted and potentially insensitive...

The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS): A Strategic Approach to Studying Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases

The effect of newly emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin in human populations can be potentially catastrophic, and large-scale investigations of such diseases are highly challenging. The monitoring of emergence events is subject to ascertainment bias, whether at the level of species discovery, emerging disease events, or disease outbreaks in human...

A Prospective Multi-Center Observational Study of Children Hospitalized with Diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Ngoc Tuyet, Nguyen Minh Ngoc, and Ha Manh Tuan, Childrens Hospital 2, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, E-mails: , , and manhtuanzu@ yahoo.com. Tran Tinh Hien, James I. Campbell, and Guy Thwaites, The Hospital

Salmonella enterica Serovar Paratyphi A and S. enterica Serovar Typhi Cause Indistinguishable Clinical Syndromes in Kathmandu, Nepal

Background. Enteric fever is a major global problem. Emergence of antibacterial resistance threatens to render current treatments ineffective. There is little research or public health effort directed toward Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, because it is assumed to cause less severe enteric fever than does S. enterica serovar Typhi. There are few data on which to base...

Temporal Fluctuation of Multidrug Resistant Salmonella Typhi Haplotypes in the Mekong River Delta Region of Vietnam

Background Typhoid fever remains a public health problem in Vietnam, with a significant burden in the Mekong River delta region. Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), which is frequently multidrug resistant with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone-based drugs, the first choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. We...

A prospective descriptive study of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV uninfected patients in Vietnam - high prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii in the absence of underlying disease

absence of underlying disease Tran TH Chau Nguyen H Mai Nguyen H Phu Ho D Nghia Ly V Chuong Dinh X Sinh Van A Duong 0 Pham T Diep 0 James I Campbell 0 Stephen Baker 0 Tran T Hien David G Lalloo Jeremy J

An Open Randomized Comparison of Gatifloxacin versus Cefixime for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Enteric Fever

ObjectiveTo assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus cefixime in the treatment of uncomplicated culture positive enteric fever.DesignA randomized, open-label, active control trial with two parallel arms.SettingEmergency Room and Outpatient Clinics in Patan Hospital, Lagankhel, Lalitpur, Nepal.ParticipantsPatients with clinically diagnosed uncomplicated enteric fever meeting the...

Microbiologic Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Clostridium tetani Isolated from Wounds of Patients with Clinically Diagnosed Tetanus

Microbiology Department, in particular, Son Chau for production of media. Financial support: This work was funded by the Wellcome Trust, London, UK. Authors addresses: James I. Campbell, Jeremy J. Farrar, and

A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study of Artesunate versus Triclabendazole for Human Fascioliasis in Central Vietnam

, Vietnam. Nguyen Hoang Minh and Hoang Dinh Dat, Binh Dinh Provincial Hospital, Qui Nhon City, Vietnam. Phung Quoc Tuan, James I. Campbell, Jeremy J. Farrar, and Jeremy N. Day, Oxford University Clinical