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Risk of Functional Ovarian Cyst: Effects of Smoking and Marijuana Use according to Body Mass Index

Smoking is one of the few risk factors that have been identified for functional ovarian cysts, and results of one epidemiologic study suggest that body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) may modify the effect of this exposure. The current study assessed the association of cigarette smoking and marijuana use with functional ovarian cyst risk by using data from a population...

Genetic Variation in the Progesterone Receptor and Metabolism Pathways and Hormone Therapy in Relation to Breast Cancer Risk

Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center , Seattle, Washington (Kerryn W. Reding, Christopher I. Li, Noel S. Weiss, Chu Chen, Christopher S. Carlson, Janet R. Daling , Kathleen E

Characteristics of Telephone Survey Respondents According to Willingness to Participate

When conducting epidemiologic case-control studies, some investigators include only controls who can be interviewed within a certain time after contact and/or do not recontact potential participants who initially refuse, whereas others expend considerable effort to recruit reluctant respondents. This additional effort is only worthwhile if it results in a sample that is more...

Frequency of CHEK2 mutations in a population based, case–control study of breast cancer in young women

Introduction The cell-cycle checkpoint kinase (CHEK)2 protein truncating mutation 1100delC has been associated with increased risk for breast or prostate cancer. Multiple studies have found an elevated frequency of the 1100delC variant in specific stratifications of breast cancer patients with a family history of the disease, including BRCA1/BRCA2 negative families and families...

Tamoxifen Therapy for Primary Breast Cancer and Risk of Contralateral Breast Cancer

Background: Women diagnosed with breast cancer have a twofold to sixfold greater risk of developing contralateral breast cancer than women in the general population have of developing a first breast cancer. Tamoxifen therapy reduces this risk, but it is unclear if this benefit exists for both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-negative contralateral tumors. Methods: Using...

Maternal Smoking and Down Syndrome: The Confounding Effect of Maternal Age

Inconsistent results have been reported from studies evaluating the association of maternal smoking with birth of a Down syndrome child. Control of known risk factors, particularly maternal age, has also varied across studies. By using a population-based case-control design (775 Down syndrome cases and 7, 750 normal controls) and Washington State birth record data for 1984–1994...

Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study of Caucasian and African-American women

Introduction The involvement of vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is a key mediator in the vitamin D pathway, in breast cancer etiology has long been of interest. Methods We examined the association between polymorphisms in the 3' end of the VDR gene, specifically BsmI and Poly(A), and breast cancer risk within a large, population-based, case-control study of breast cancer. Cases...

A Validation Study of Patient Interview Data and Pharmacy Records for Antihypertensive, Statin, and Antidepressant Medication Use among Older Women

A validation study evaluated the accuracy of self-reported use of commonly used medications among older women. Within a case-control study of breast cancer, drug information was ascertained by interview. Pharmacy records from 1990 to 1999 were obtained from a Washington State health maintenance organization (66% of subjects) and retail pharmacies (34% of subjects) on a sample of...

Glutathione S-Transferase M1 Genotypes and the Risk of Squamous Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Population-based Case-Control Study

R. Daling 1 0 Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington , Seattle, WA , USA 1 Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health Sciences, Red HutchJnson Cancer Research Center , Seattle

Glutathlone S-Transferase M1 Genotypes and the Rismk of Vulvar Cancer: A Population-based Case-Control Study

Gultahione S-transferases (GSTs) facilitate the excertion of a variety of potential carciogenes. Some 50–60% of Caucasians are homozygous for the null allele of GSTM1, a gene responsible for the prsence fofr one of these enzymes. The authors examined whether women with the GSTM1, null genotype are at altered risk of vulvar cancer. They obtained peripheral blood specimens from 18...

Reproductive Factors and Risk of Papillary Thyroid Cancer in Women

The authors conducted a population-based case-control study of 410 women residing in three counties in western Washington State who were aged 18–64 years when diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer in 1988–1994 and 574 controls to assess the effects of pregnancy history and other aspects of reproductive life on risk of this disease. Among women aged 45–64, the authors observed...

Physical Activity in Relation to Colon Cancer in Middle-aged Men and Women

A population-based case-control study was conducted to assess the relation between physical activity and colon cancer among men and women aged 30–62 years. Cases were 251 men and 193 women diagnosed with colon cancer in 1985–1989 in three counties in the Seattle metropolitan area who were identified from the Seattle-Puget Sound Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry...

Case-Control Differences in the Reliability of Reporting a History of Induced Abortion

The authors investigated the possibility that, in interview-based case-control studies, controls are more likely than cases to underreport a history of induced abortion. A case-control study was conducted in White women under 45 years of age who had given birth in Washington State during 1984–1994. The cases were women in three metropolitan counties of Washington State diagnosed...

Hormone Replacement Therapy After a Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in Relation to Recurrence and Mortality

Background: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is typically avoided for women with a history of breast cancer because of concerns that estrogen will stimulate recurrence. In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of HRT on recurrence and mortality after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods: Data were assembled from 2755 women aged 35–74 years who were diagnosed with...

Timing of Menarche and First Full-Term Birth in Relation to Breast Cancer Risk

Ages at menarche and first birth are established risk factors for breast cancer. The interval between these ages may also affect risk, since the breast is more susceptible to carcinogenic insults during this period than during the parous period. However, few investigators have studied this relation. Using logistic regression, the authors evaluated associations between the timing...

Vasectomy and Prostate Cancer: A Case-Control Study in a Health Maintenance Organization

A case-control study was conducted within Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound to evaluate the relation between prior vasectomy and the risk of prostate cancer. Cases consisted of 175 men newly diagnosed with histologicalty confirmed prostate cancer during 1989–1991. A total of 258 controls, matched to cases on birth year and membership status, were randomly selected from the...

Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II and Cervical Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Study

The critical role of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system in presenting peptides to antigen-specific T cell receptors may explain why only some human papillomavirus (HPV)–infected women progress to cervical cancer. HLA class II DRB1 and DQB1 genes were examined in 315 women with invasive squamous cell cervical cancer (SCC) and 381 control subjects. Increased risks of SCC were...

Validity and Reliability of Subject and Mother Reporting of Perinatal Factors

The authors used data from a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in women aged ≤44 years (cases, n = 975; controls, n = 866) conducted between 1994 and 1996 in three counties of western Washington state to assess the validity and reliability of reported perinatal factors. For a sample of participants, exposure information from self-administered questionnaires was...