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The impact of eliminating primary school tuition fees on child marriage in sub-Saharan Africa: A quasi-experimental evaluation of policy changes in 8 countries

. Strumpf, Jay S. Kaufman, Arijit Nandi. Supervision: John Frank, Arijit Nandi. Writing ± original draft: Alissa Koski. Writing ± review & editing: Alissa Koski, Erin C. Strumpf, Jay S. Kaufman, John Frank

Counterfactual Theory in Social Epidemiology: Reconciling Analysis and Action for the Social Determinants of Health

There is a strong and growing interest in applying formal methods for causal inference with observational data in social epidemiology. A number of challenges in defining, identifying, and estimating counterfactual-based causal effects have been especially problematic in social epidemiology, particularly for commonly used exposures such as race, education, occupation, or...

The Contribution of Genomic Research to Explaining Racial Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

After nearly a decade of genome-wide association studies, no assessment has yet been made of their contribution toward an explanation of the most prominent racial health disparities observed at the population level. We examined populations of African and European ancestry and focused on cardiovascular diseases, which are collectively the largest contributor to the racial...

The Neighbourhood Built Environment and Trajectories of Depression Symptom Episodes in Adults: A Latent Class Growth Analysis

Aim To investigate the effect of the neighbourhood built environment on trajectories of depression symptom episodes in adults from the general Canadian population. Research Design and Methods We used 10 years of data collection (2000/01-2010/11) from the Canadian National Population Health Study (n = 7114). Episodes of depression symptoms were identified using the Composite...

Achieving effective universal health coverage with equity: evidence from Chile

Chile’s ‘health guarantees’ approach to providing universal and equitable coverage for quality healthcare in a dual public–private health system has generated global interest. The programme, called AUGE, defines legally enforceable rights to explicit healthcare benefits for priority health conditions, which incrementally covered 56 problems representing 75% of the disease burden...

Working and hypertension: gaps in employment not associated with increased risk in 13 European countries, a retrospective cohort study

Background There is growing evidence to suggest unemployment has a role in the development and incidence of cardiovascular disease. This study explores the contribution of breaks in employment to the development of hypertension, a key risk factor for coronary heart disease. Methods We use data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe to estimate the association...

Epidemiologic Evaluation of Human Papillomavirus Type Competition and the Potential for Type Replacement Post-Vaccination

Stephen D. Walter Jay S. Kaufman FrancË ois Coutle e Harriet Richardson Ann N. Burchell 0 1 Anita Koushik Marie He lène Mayrand Luisa L. Villa 2 Eduardo L. Franco 0 Craig Meyers, Penn State University

Assessing the Possible Direct Effect of Birth Weight on Childhood Blood Pressure: A Sensitivity Analysis

, Lausanne , Switzerland ( Arnaud Chiolero); and the Department of Epidemiology , Bi- ostatistics, and Occupational Health , McGill University , Montreal , Canada ( Gilles Paradis, Jay S. Kaufman). We thank Dr

Stochastic Mediation Contrasts in Epidemiologic Research: Interpregnancy Interval and the Educational Disparity in Preterm Delivery

. Naimi); Department of Epidemiol- ogy , Biostatistics, and Occupational Health , Faculty of Medi- cine, McGill University , Montreal, Quebec , Canada ( Erica E. M. Moodie, Jay S. Kaufman); National

Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Risk of Depression in the Elderly: A Marginal Structural Model

, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Jay S. Kaufman). The Three-City Study is conducted under a partnership agreement between INSERM, Victor SegalenBordeaux II University, and

Invited Commentary: Decomposing with a Lot of Supposing

Jay S. Kaufman ) 0 0 1020 Pine Avenue West, Montreal , Quebec, Canada H3A 1A2 ( American Journal of Epidemiology The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins

Duración de las licencias médicas FONASA por trastornos mentales y del comportamiento

Background: In Chile, the number of sick leaves due to mental health problems has systematically increased in recent years. Aim: To perform an analysis of sick leaves due to mental problems managed by the Fondo Nacional de Salud (FONASA) during 2008. Material and Methods: Analysis of all sick leaves awarded during 2008for mental or behavioral problems, that were managed at FONASA...

Invited Commentary: The Socioeconomic Causes of Adverse Birth Outcomes

Global Health Institute , Durham , North Carolina (Lynne C. Messer); and Department of Ep- idemiology , Biostatistics, and Occupational Health , McGill University , Montreal, Quebec , Canada ( Jay S ... . Kaufman). Conflict of interest: none declared American Journal of Epidemiology The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All

African American Race and HIV Virological Suppression: Beyond Disparities in Clinic Attendance

Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Canada (Jay S. Kaufman); and Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham

“Toward a Clearer Definition of Confounding” Revisited With Directed Acyclic Graphs

In a 1993 paper (Am J Epidemiol. 1993;137(1):1–8), Weinberg considered whether a variable that is associated with the outcome and is affected by exposure but is not an intermediate variable between exposure and outcome should be considered a confounder in etiologic studies. As an example, she examined the common practice of adjusting for history of spontaneous abortion when...

Absence of disparities in anthropometric measures among Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous newborns

Background Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The...

The Neighborhood Contribution to Black-White Perinatal Disparities: An Example From Two North Carolina Counties, 1999–2001

); Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Jay S. Kaufman); Duke Global Health Institute, Durham, North Carolina (Lynne

Blacks and whites in Cuba have equal prevalence of hypertension: confirmation from a new population survey

Background The excess burden of hypertension among blacks has been a prominent feature of the heath disparities literature, and many scientists presume it to be a stable and inevitable phenomenon. The underlying causes of this disparity can only be disentangled in a setting in which the population does not experience racial stratification of socioeconomic opportunities. While...