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Pneumocystis Encodes a Functional Endo-β-1,3-glucanase That is Expressed Exclusively in Cysts

β-1,3-glucan is a major cell wall component of Pneumocystis cysts. We have characterized endo-β-1,3-glucanase (Eng) from 3 species of Pneumocystis. The gene eng is a single-copy gene that encodes a protein containing 786 amino acids in P. carinii and P. murina, and 788 amino acids in P. jirovecii, including a signal peptide for the former 2 but not the latter. Recombinant Eng...

HASP server: a database and structural visualization platform for comparative models of influenza A hemagglutinin proteins

Eleca J Dunham 1 Jeffery K Taubenberger 1 Darrell E Hurt 0 0 Bioinformatics and Computational Biosciences Branch, Office of Cyber Infrastructure and Computational Biology, National Institute of Allergy

Age- and Sex-Specific Mortality Associated With the 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic in Kentucky

Background. The reasons for the unusual age-specific mortality patterns of the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic remain unknown. Here we characterize pandemic-related mortality by single year of age in a unique statewide Kentucky data set and explore breakpoints in the age curves. Methods. Individual death certificates from Kentucky during 1911–1919 were abstracted by medically...

Pandemic Influenza's 500th Anniversary

It is impossible to know with certainty the first time that an influenza virus infected humans or when the first influenza pandemic occurred. However, many historians agree that the year 1510 a.d.—500 years ago—marks the first recognition of pandemic influenza. On this significant anniversary it is timely to ask: what were the circumstances surrounding the emergence of the 1510...

Reply to Kilbourne

general. David M. Morens, Jeffery K. Taubenberger, and Anthony S. Fauci National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Evidence against

Predominant Role of Bacterial Pneumonia as a Cause of Death in Pandemic Influenza: Implications for Pandemic Influenza Preparedness

David M. Morens 0 Jeffery K. Taubenberger 0 Anthony S. Fauci 0 0 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda, Maryland (See the editorial

Reply to Abed et al

Matthew J. Memoli, A. Sally Davis, Kathleen Proudfoot, Daniel S. Chertow , Rachel J. Hrabal, Tyler Bristol, and Jeffery K. Taubenberger efficacy of intravenous peramivir, especially in treatment of

MultiDrug-Resistant 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses Maintain Fitness and Transmissibility in Ferrets

Background. The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic called attention to the limited influenza treatment options available, especially in individuals at high risk of severe disease. Neuraminidase inhibitor–resistant seasonal H1N1 viruses have demonstrated the ability to transmit well despite early data indicating that resistance reduces viral fitness. 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses have...

Recent Human Influenza A/H3N2 Virus Evolution Driven by Novel Selection Factors in Addition to Antigenic Drift

BackgroundExamination of the evolutionary dynamics of complete influenza viral genomes reveals that other processes, in conjunction with antigenic drift, play important roles in viral evolution and selection, but there is little biological evidence to support these genomic data. Previous work demonstrated that after the A/Fujian/411/2002-like H3N2 influenza A epidemic during 2003...

Overlapping signals for translational regulation and packaging of influenza A virus segment 2

Influenza A virus segment 2 mRNA expresses three polypeptides: PB1, PB1-F2 and PB1-N40, from AUGs 1, 4 and 5 respectively. Two short open reading frames (sORFs) initiated by AUGs 2 and 3 are also present. To understand translational regulation in this system, we systematically mutated AUGs 1–4 and monitored polypeptide synthesis from plasmids and recombinant viruses. This...

Rapid Selection of a Transmissible Multidrug-Resistant Influenza A/H3N2 Virus in an Immunocompromised Host

Background. The overall impact of influenza virus infection in immunocompromised patients is largely unknown. Antigenic drift and genetic variations during prolonged influenza infection have been demonstrated. In this report we describe a multidrug-resistant H3N2 influenza virus isolated from an immunocompromised patient after 5 days of therapy. Methods. Multiple nasal wash...

Identification of a Novel Splice Variant Form of the Influenza A Virus M2 Ion Channel with an Antigenically Distinct Ectodomain

Segment 7 of influenza A virus produces up to four mRNAs. Unspliced transcripts encode M1, spliced mRNA2 encodes the M2 ion channel, while protein products from spliced mRNAs 3 and 4 have not previously been identified. The M2 protein plays important roles in virus entry and assembly, and is a target for antiviral drugs and vaccination. Surprisingly, M2 is not essential for virus...

Multiple Reassortment Events in the Evolutionary History of H1N1 Influenza A Virus Since 1918

. Sengamalay Elodie Ghedin Jeffery K. Taubenberger Edward C. Holmes Yoshihiro Kawaoka, University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States of America The H1N1 subtype of influenza A virus has caused substantial

Allelic loss on chromosome band 18p11.3 occurs early and reveals heterogeneity in breast cancer progression

We examined the stage specificity and heterogeneity of 18p11 alterations in a series of tumors representing 96 microdissected samples. Significant loss of heterozygosity (LOH) (63%) was found, with 56% occurring early in ductal carcinoma in situ. Although most cases indicated LOH was clonally inherited, heterogeneity for 18p LOH occurred in 27% of tumors. When compared with other...

The Evolutionary Genetics and Emergence of Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds

Dennis A. Senne Ruixue Wang Richard D. Slemons Edward C. Holmes Jeffery K. Taubenberger Daniel R. Perez, University of Maryland, United States of America We surveyed the genetic diversity among avian