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14 papers found.
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A Randomised Controlled Feasibility Trial of Immersive Virtual Reality Treatment with Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Specific Phobias in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder

We examined the feasibility and acceptability of using an immersive virtual reality environment (VRE) alongside cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for young people with autism experiencing specific phobia. Thirty-two participants were randomised to treatment or control. Treatment involved one session introducing CBT techniques and four VRE sessions, delivered by local clinical...

Paediatric Autism Communication Therapy-Generalised (PACT-G) against treatment as usual for reducing symptom severity in young children with autism spectrum disorder: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Prior evidence shows that behaviours closely related to the intervention delivered for autism are amenable to change, but it is more difficult to generalise treatment effects beyond the intervention context. We test an early autism intervention designed to promote generalisation of therapy-acquired skills into home and school contexts to improve adaptive function and reduce...

Enhancing the Validity of a Quality of Life Measure for Autistic People

Accurate measurement of quality of life (QoL) is important for evaluation of autism services and trials of interventions. We undertook psychometric validation of the World Health Organisation measure—WHOQoL-BREF, examined construct validity of the WHO Disabilities module and developed nine additional autism-specific items (ASQoL) from extensive consultation with the autism...

Parents Suggest Which Indicators of Progress and Outcomes Should be Measured in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Evaluation of interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is hampered by the multitude of outcomes measured and tools used. Measurement in research with young children tends to focus on core impairments in ASD. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies of what matters to parents. Parent advisory groups completed structured activities to explore...

Factors Affecting Age at ASD Diagnosis in UK: No Evidence that Diagnosis Age has Decreased Between 2004 and 2014

with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (e.g. Magiati et al. 2014; Oono et al. 2013). As children get older, treatments may be less effective (Harris and & Jeremy R. Parr Handleman 2000), highlighting the ... R. Parr 0 1 0 Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University , Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4LP , UK 1 Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University , Newcastle upon Tyne , UK Clinical

The Association Between Child and Family Characteristics and the Mental Health and Wellbeing of Caregivers of Children with Autism in Mid-Childhood

We examined predictors of mental health difficulties and wellbeing in caregivers of children with autism in the Pre-school Autism Communication Trial cohort in middle childhood (N = 104). Child’s intellectual disability, daily living skills impairment, elevated emotional and behavioural difficulties, high educational level of caregiver and household income below the median...

Reducing Specific Phobia/Fear in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) through a Virtual Reality Environment Intervention

Anxiety is common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with specific fears and phobias one of the most frequent subtypes. Specific fears and phobias can have a serious impact on young people with ASD and their families. In this study we developed and evaluated a unique treatment combining cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) with graduated exposure in a virtual reality...

Optimising nutrition to improve growth and reduce neurodisabilities in neonates at risk of neurological impairment, and children with suspected or confirmed cerebral palsy

Background Neurological impairment is a common sequelae of perinatal brain injury. Plasticity of the developing brain is due to a rich substrate of developing neurones, synaptic elements and extracellular matrix. Interventions supporting this inherent capacity for plasticity may improve the developmental outcome of infants following brain injury. Nutritional supplementation with...

The drooling reduction intervention trial (DRI): a single blind trial comparing the efficacy of glycopyrronium and hyoscine on drooling in children with neurodisability

Background Drooling saliva is a common problem in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. The negative consequences of drooling include skin breakdown, dehydration, and damage to clothing and equipment. Children and families often suffer social embarrassment due to drooling. There is no evidence about the relative effectiveness, side effect profiles or patient acceptability...

Mutation screening and association analysis of six candidate genes for autism on chromosome 7q

Genetic studies have provided evidence for an autism susceptibility locus (AUTS1) on chromosome 7q. Screening for mutations in six genes mapping to 7q, CUTL1, SRPK2, SYPL, LAMB1, NRCAM and PTPRZ1 in 48 unrelated individuals with autism led to the identification of several new coding variants in the genes CUTL1, LAMB1 and PTPRZ1. Analysis of genetic variants provided evidence for...

Improved imputation of low-frequency and rare variants using the UK10K haplotype reference panel

Imputing genotypes from reference panels created by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provides a cost-effective strategy for augmenting the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) content of genome-wide arrays. The UK10K Cohorts project has generated a data set of 3,781 whole genomes sequenced at low depth (average 7x), aiming to exhaustively characterize genetic variation down to 0.1...

Individual common variants exert weak effects on the risk for autism spectrum disorders

While it is apparent that rare variation can play an important role in the genetic architecture of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), the contribution of common variation to the risk of developing ASD is less clear. To produce a more comprehensive picture, we report Stage 2 of the Autism Genome Project genome-wide association study, adding 1301 ASD families and bringing the total...

Gene-ontology enrichment analysis in two independent family-based samples highlights biologically plausible processes for autism spectrum disorders

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated a range of genes from discrete biological pathways in the aetiology of autism. However, despite the strong influence of genetic factors, association studies have yet to identify statistically robust, replicated major effect genes or SNPs. We apply the principle of the SNP ratio test methodology described by O’Dushlaine...

A genome-wide scan for common alleles affecting risk for autism

Although autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a substantial genetic basis, most of the known genetic risk has been traced to rare variants, principally copy number variants (CNVs). To identify common risk variation, the Autism Genome Project (AGP) Consortium genotyped 1558 rigorously defined ASD families for 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and analyzed these SNP...