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Inhibition of Arabidopsis chloroplast β-amylase BAM3 by maltotriose suggests a mechanism for the control of transitory leaf starch mobilisation

Starch breakdown in leaves at night is tightly matched to the duration of the dark period, but the mechanism by which this regulation is achieved is unknown. In Arabidopsis chloroplasts, β-amylase BAM3 hydrolyses transitory starch, producing maltose and residual maltotriose. The aim of the current research was to investigate the regulatory and kinetic properties of BAM3. The BAM3...

A Novel Candidate Region for Genetic Adaptation to High Altitude in Andean Populations

Humans living at high altitude (≥2,500 meters above sea level) have acquired unique abilities to survive the associated extreme environmental conditions, including hypoxia, cold temperature, limited food availability and high levels of free radicals and oxidants. Long-term inhabitants of the most elevated regions of the world have undergone extensive physiological and/or genetic...

Regulation of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and its integration with fatty acid biosynthesis in the oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica

Background Sterols are vital structural and regulatory components in eukaryotic cells; however, their biosynthetic pathways and functional roles in microalgae remain poorly understood. Results In the oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica, the sterol biosynthetic pathway produces phytosterols as minor products and cholesterol as the major product. The evidence together...

Activation of Olfactory Receptors on Mouse Pulmonary Macrophages Promotes Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 Production

Background Emerging evidence suggests that non-olfactory tissues and cells can express olfactory receptors (ORs), however, the exact function of ectopic OR expression remains unknown. We have previously shown in mouse models that a unique cooperation between interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) drives the activation of pulmonary macrophages and leads to the induction...

Influences of H on the Adsorption of a Single Ag Atom on Si(111)-7 × 7 Surface

The adsorption of a single Ag atom on both clear Si(111)-7 × 7 and 19 hydrogen terminated Si(111)-7 × 7 (hereafter referred as 19H-Si(111)-7 × 7) surfaces has been investigated using first-principles calculations. The results indicated that the pre-adsorbed H on Si surface altered the surface electronic properties of Si and influenced the adsorption properties of Ag atom on the H...

Patient safety education for undergraduate medical students: a systematic review

Li 1 4 0 Chinese Evidence-Based Medicine Centre, West China Hospital Sichuan University , Chengdu 610041. P.R. China 1 Department of Evidence-Based Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, West China

Sugar Input, Metabolism, and Signaling Mediated by Invertase: Roles in Development, Yield Potential, and Response to Drought and Heat

Invertase (INV) hydrolyzes sucrose into glucose and fructose, thereby playing key roles in primary metabolism and plant development. Based on their pH optima and sub-cellular locations, INVs are categorized into cell wall, cytoplasmic, and vacuolar subgroups, abbreviated as CWIN, CIN, and VIN, respectively. The broad importance and implications of INVs in plant development and...