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Genome-wide association study (GWAS) reveals the genetic architecture of four husk traits in maize

Background Maize (Zea mays) husk referring to the leafy outer enclosing the ear, plays an important role in grain production by directly contributing photosynthate and protecting ear from pathogen infection. Although the physiological functions related to husk have been extensively studied, little is known about its morphological variation and genetic basis in natural population...

Construction of a high-density genetic map and mapping of a sex-linked locus for the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae) based on large scale marker development by specific length amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing

Background Undaria pinnatifida is an important economic brown alga in East Asian countries. However, its genetic and genomic information is very scarce, which hinders further research in this species. A high-density genetic map is a basic tool for fundamental and applied research such as discovery of functional genes and mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). In this study the...

Development and characterization of chromosome segment substitution lines derived from Oryza rufipogon in the genetic background of O. sativa spp. indica cultivar 9311

Background Wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) constitutes a primary gene source for rice breed improvement. Chromosome segment substitution line (CSSL) for O. rufipogon is a powerful tool for fine mapping of quantitative traits, new gene discovery, and marker-assisted breeding. Thus, they provide a basis for a wide range of genomic and genetic studies. Results In this study, a set of...

qDNAmod: a statistical model-based tool to reveal intercellular heterogeneity of DNA modification from SMRT sequencing data

In an isogenic cell population, phenotypic heterogeneity among individual cells is common and critical for survival of the population under different environment conditions. DNA modification is an important epigenetic factor that can regulate phenotypic heterogeneity. The single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology provides a unique platform for detecting a wide range...

Interpreting genomic data via entropic dissection

369 8656; Email: Correspondence may also be addressed to Jing Li. Tel: +1 216 368 0356; Email: feasible by the development of efficient sampling techniques, namely, the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC

Population history and genomic signatures for high-altitude adaptation in Tibetan pigs

Background The Tibetan pig is one of domestic animals indigenous to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Several geographically isolated pig populations are distributed throughout the Plateau. It remained an open question if these populations have experienced different demographic histories and have evolved independent adaptive loci for the harsh environment of the Plateau. To address...

Comparison and evaluation of two exome capture kits and sequencing platforms for variant calling

Background To promote the clinical application of next-generation sequencing, it is important to obtain accurate and consistent variants of target genomic regions at low cost. Ion Proton, the latest updated semiconductor-based sequencing instrument from Life Technologies, is designed to provide investigators with an inexpensive platform for human whole exome sequencing that...

Comparative genomic analysis between newly sequenced Brucella suis Vaccine Strain S2 and the Virulent Brucella suis Strain 1330

Background Brucellosis is a bacterial disease caused by Brucella infection. In the late fifties, Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 with reduced virulence was obtained by serial transfer of a virulent B. suis biovar 1 strain in China. It has been widely used for vaccination in China since 1971. Until now, the mechanisms underlie virulence attenuation of S2 are still unknown. Results...

Exploring hierarchical and overlapping modular structure in the yeast protein interaction network

Changning Liu 0 Jing Li 0 Yi Zhao 0 0 Bioinformatics Group, Key Laboratory of Intelligent Information Processing, Center for Advanced Computing Research, Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese

RecJ-like protein from Pyrococcus furiosus has 3′–5′ exonuclease activity on RNA: implications for proofreading of 3′-mismatched RNA primers in DNA replication

Replicative DNA polymerases require an RNA primer for leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis, and primase is responsible for the de novo synthesis of this RNA primer. However, the archaeal primase from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) frequently incorporates mismatched nucleoside monophosphate, which stops RNA synthesis. Pfu DNA polymerase (PolB) cannot elongate the resulting 3...

Identification of gene fusions from human lung cancer mass spectrometry data

Background Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) technology has been applied to identify proteins, as an ultimate approach to confirm the original genome annotation. To be able to identify gene fusion proteins, a special database containing peptides that cross over gene fusion breakpoints is needed. Methods It is impractical to construct a database that includes all possible fusion...

Comparative DNA methylome analysis of endometrial carcinoma reveals complex and distinct deregulation of cancer promoters and enhancers

Background Aberrant DNA methylation is a hallmark of many cancers. Classically there are two types of endometrial cancer, endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC), or Type I, and uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC), or Type II. However, the whole genome DNA methylation changes in these two classical types of endometrial cancer is still unknown. Results Here we described complete...

Structural mechanism of the phosphorylation-dependent dimerization of the MDC1 forkhead-associated domain

MDC1 is a key mediator of the DNA-damage response in mammals with several phosphorylation-dependent protein interaction domains. The function of its N-terminal forkhead-associated (FHA) domain remains elusive. Here, we show with structural, biochemical and cellular data that the FHA domain mediates phosphorylation-dependent dimerization of MDC1 in response to DNA damage. Crystal...

Subpathway-GM: identification of metabolic subpathways via joint power of interesting genes and metabolites and their topologies within pathways

Various ‘omics’ technologies, including microarrays and gas chromatography mass spectrometry, can be used to identify hundreds of interesting genes, proteins and metabolites, such as differential genes, proteins and metabolites associated with diseases. Identifying metabolic pathways has become an invaluable aid to understanding the genes and metabolites associated with studying...

Development of highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers using genome-wide microsatellite variant analysis in Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.]

Background Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.) is an important gramineous grain-food and forage crop. It is grown worldwide for human and livestock consumption. Its small genome and diploid nature have led to foxtail millet fast becoming a novel model for investigating plant architecture, drought tolerance and C4 photosynthesis of grain and bioenergy crops. Therefore...

Involvement of potential pathways in malignant transformation from Oral Leukoplakia to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma revealed by proteomic analysis

Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common forms of cancer associated with the presence of precancerous oral leukoplakia. Given the poor prognosis associated with oral leukoplakia, and the difficulties in distinguishing it from cancer lesions, there is an urgent need to elucidate the molecular determinants and critical signal pathways underlying the...

Ab initio identification of transcription start sites in the Rhesus macaque genome by histone modification and RNA-Seq

Rhesus macaque is a widely used primate model organism. Its genome annotations are however still largely comparative computational predictions derived mainly from human genes, which precludes studies on the macaque-specific genes, gene isoforms or their regulations. Here we took advantage of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3)’s ability to mark transcription start sites...

Identification, characterization, and utilization of genome-wide simple sequence repeats to identify a QTL for acidity in apple

Background Apple is an economically important fruit crop worldwide. Developing a genetic linkage map is a critical step towards mapping and cloning of genes responsible for important horticultural traits in apple. To facilitate linkage map construction, we surveyed and characterized the distribution and frequency of perfect microsatellites in assembled contig sequences of the...

Probing genomic diversity and evolution of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 by NimbleGen tiling arrays

Background Our previous studies revealed that a new disease form of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is associated with specific Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) strains. To achieve a better understanding of the pathogenicity and evolution of SS2 at the whole-genome level, comparative genomic analysis of 18 SS2 strains, selected on the basis of virulence and...

dbDEPC 2.0: updated database of differentially expressed proteins in human cancers

A large amount of differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) have been identified in various cancer proteomics experiments, curation and annotation of these proteins are important in deciphering their roles in oncogenesis and tumor progression, and may further help to discover potential protein biomarkers for clinical applications. In 2009, we published the first database of DEPs...