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43 papers found.
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Prevalence of cardiovascular medication on secondary prevention after myocardial infarction in China between 1995-2015: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Background Myocardial Infarction (MI) has become a major cause of morbidity and mortality in China, but little is known about the prevalence of guideline-recommended cardiovascular medications after MI events over the last two decades. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to summarize cardiovascular medication use between 1995–2015 and to assess factors in associated...

Latent class bivariate model for the meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies

Background Several types of statistical methods are currently available for the meta-analysis of studies on diagnostic test accuracy. One of these methods is the Bivariate Model which involves a simultaneous analysis of the sensitivity and specificity from a set of studies. In this paper, we review the characteristics of the Bivariate Model and demonstrate how it can be extended...

Transparent reporting of a multivariable prediction model for individual prognosis or diagnosis (TRIPOD): the TRIPOD Statement

Prediction models are developed to aid health care providers in estimating the probability or risk that a specific disease or condition is present (diagnostic models) or that a specific event will occur in the future (prognostic models), to inform their decision making. However, the overwhelming evidence shows that the quality of reporting of prediction model studies is poor...

Comparing Screening Instruments to Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Background Following traumatic exposure, a proportion of trauma victims develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Early PTSD risk screening requires sensitive instruments to identify everyone at risk for developing PTSD in need of diagnostic follow-up. Aims This study compares the accuracy of the 4-item SPAN, 10-item Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ) and 22-item Impact of...

High Hospitalization Rates in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study Using Medical Record Linkage

Hospitalization rates over time of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) provide insight into the burden of unfavorable health conditions on CCS and health care resources. The objective of our study was to examine trends in hospitalizations of CCS and risk factors in comparison with the general population. We performed a medical record linkage study of a cohort of 1564 ≥five-year CCS...

Updating standards for reporting diagnostic accuracy: the development of STARD 2015

. Reitsma 2 David E. Bruns 8 Constantine A. Gatsonis 7 Paul P. Glasziou 6 Les Irwig 5 David Moher 9 10 Henrica C. W. de Vet 4 Douglas G. Altman 11 Lotty Hooft 12 Patrick M. M. Bossuyt 1 0 Equal contributors

A decision rule to aid selection of patients with abdominal sepsis requiring a relaparotomy

Background Accurate and timely identification of patients in need of a relaparotomy is challenging since there are no readily available strongholds. The aim of this study is to develop a prediction model to aid the decision-making process in whom to perform a relaparotomy. Methods Data from a randomized trial comparing surgical strategies for relaparotomy were used. Variables...

Are novel non-invasive imaging techniques needed in patients with suspected prosthetic heart valve endocarditis? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Objectives Multimodal non-invasive imaging plays a key role in establishing a diagnosis of PHV endocarditis. The objective of this study was to provide a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of TTE, TEE, and MDCT in patients with (suspected) PHV endocarditis. Methods Studies published between 1985 and 2013 were identified via search and...

Small-study effects and time trends in diagnostic test accuracy meta-analyses: a meta-epidemiological study

Background Small-study effects and time trends have been identified in meta-analyses of randomized trials. We evaluated whether these effects are also present in meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy studies. Methods A systematic search identified test accuracy meta-analyses published between May and September 2012. In each meta-analysis, the strength of the associations...

Critical Appraisal and Data Extraction for Systematic Reviews of Prediction Modelling Studies: The CHARMS Checklist

Carl Moons and colleagues provide a checklist and background explanation for critically appraising and extracting data from systematic reviews of prognostic and diagnostic prediction modelling studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Studying Hospitalizations and Mortality in the Netherlands: Feasible and Valid Using Two-Step Medical Record Linkage with Nationwide Registers

In the Netherlands, the postal code is needed to study hospitalizations of individuals in the nationwide hospitalization register. Studying hospitalizations longitudinally becomes troublesome if individuals change address. We aimed to report on the feasibility and validity of a two-step medical record linkage approach to examine longitudinal trends in hospitalizations and...

The impact of the HEART risk score in the early assessment of patients with acute chest pain: design of a stepped wedge, cluster randomised trial

Background Chest pain remains a diagnostic challenge: physicians do not want to miss an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but, they also wish to avoid unnecessary additional diagnostic procedures. In approximately 75% of the patients presenting with chest pain at the emergency department (ED) there is no underlying cardiac cause. Therefore, diagnostic strategies focus on identifying...

Incorporating quality assessments of primary studies in the conclusions of diagnostic accuracy reviews: a cross-sectional study

Background Drawing conclusions from systematic reviews of test accuracy studies without considering the methodological quality (risk of bias) of included studies may lead to unwarranted optimism about the value of the test(s) under study. We sought to identify to what extent the results of quality assessment of included studies are incorporated in the conclusions of diagnostic...

Triage of frail elderly with reduced exercise tolerance in primary care (TREE). a clustered randomized diagnostic study

BackgroundExercise reduced tolerance and breathlessness are common in the elderly and can result in substantial loss in functionality and health related quality of life. Heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common underlying causes, but can be difficult to disentangle due to overlap in symptomatology. In addition, other potential causes such as...

External Validation of Prediction Models for Pneumonia in Primary Care Patients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis

Background Pneumonia remains difficult to diagnose in primary care. Prediction models based on signs and symptoms (S&S) serve to minimize the diagnostic uncertainty. External validation of these models is essential before implementation into routine practice. In this study all published S&S models for prediction of pneumonia in primary care were externally validated in the...

Use of Expert Panels to Define the Reference Standard in Diagnostic Research: A Systematic Review of Published Methods and Reporting

Loes C. M. Bertens and colleagues survey the published diagnostic research literature for use of expert panels to define the reference standard, characterize components and missing information, and recommend elements that should be reported in diagnostic studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

IVF with preimplantation genetic screening, a promising new treatment with unexpectedly negative health outcomes: the Hippocratic role of Data Monitoring Committees

A recently published randomized controlled trial showed preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) as part of an IVF programme to reduce ongoing pregnancy rates by 1/3 in comparison to the control group without PGS: rate ratio (RR) 0.69 (0.51–0.93), P = 0.01. A masked interim analysis already showed significant differences between treatment arms: RR 0.58 (0.35–0.94), P = 0.02...

Serotonin transporter binding with [123I]β-CIT SPECT in major depressive disorder versus controls: effect of season and gender

Purpose The serotonin system is undoubtedly involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). More specifically the serotonin transporter (SERT) serves as a major target for antidepressant drugs. There are conflicting results about SERT availability in depressed patients versus healthy controls. We aimed to measure SERT availability and study the effects of age...