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Exploring Women’s Perspectives of Family Planning: A Qualitative Study from Rural Papua New Guinea

Journal of International Women's Studies New Guinea Sari Andajani-Sutjahjo 0 Zuabe Manguruc Tinning 0 John F. Smith 0 0 This item is available as part of Virtual Commons, the open-access ... John F Smith, Postgraduate Tropical Medicine Program & Office of Academic Affairs, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. = 4 or more births per family) and high maternal

Serological responses to IBR viral vaccine and Mannheimia haemolytica bacterin/leukotoxoid administered with needle-free injection technology

License Thi s work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Authors John F. Smith, B.J. Johnson, Sanjay Kapil, Larry C. Hollis, and Derek A. Mosier Thi s Research Report article is

Effects of supplementing methionine and lysine in a lactation diet containing high concentrations of corn by-products

Ninety-six lactating Holstein cows were used to determine the effects of using commercial supplements to supply additional lysine and methionine in diets containing large proportions of corn by-products. Cows were assigned to 1 of 8 pens. Pens were offered rations formulated to differ in metabolizable lysine and methionine supply. The study was divided into 2 periods. During...

Temperature changes in a low-profile, cross-ventilated building in the high plains

Performance of an evaporative cooling system was evaluated in the High Plains in a low-profile, cross-ventilated dairy facility housing 4,200 lactating cows. The temperature decrease across the 6-inch cellulose evaporative pad during the afternoon hours from July 15 to August 14, 2008, was 12.6°F. The temperature-humidity index was below 72 for 14 and 19 hours/day in pens near...

Land Requirements for Freestall Dairy Facilities

Existing blueprints were used to estimate land requirements for new dairy facilities. The average land requirement for constructing a new dairy complex with freestall housing and a new parlor is 915 ft2 per lactating cow. Approximately 52% of the overall land space is used for dairy operations including a milk center, housing, transfer lanes, vehicle roads, a feed center, and a...

Impact of evaporative pads and cross ventilation on core body temperature and resting time of lactating cows

A trial was conducted to determine the impact of evaporative cooling pads on core body temperature (CBT), time spent lying, and number of lying bouts of Holstein cows housed in cross-ventilated freestall facilities. Despite cool ambient conditions during the trial, cows without evaporative pads tended to have elevated CBT above 102°F for 2.3 more hours per day and elevated CBT...

Estimating optimal operation time of korral kools on dairy cows in a desert environment

Developing management strategies for Korral Kools will help producers provide cooling in the housing area while minimizing the operational cost of the Korral Kools system. Two experiments were conducted at a dairy in Saudi Arabia to evaluate operational time of Korral Kools for multiparous and primiparous dairy cows. For multiparous cows, running time per day of Korral Kools...

Opportunities with low profile cross ventilated freestall facilities

Low profile cross ventilated freestall buildings are one option for dairy cattle housing. These facilities allow producers to control the cows

Impact of slope and pipe diameter on flush plume design

Manning's equation provides a method to evaluate the flow characteristics of a flush plume system used to move a diluted, sandladen manure stream from a freestall building to sand or solid separation equipment. Evaluation of a 16, 18, and 24-inch plume showed pipe slope is critical in maintaining a 5 feet per second water velocity through the pipe. A 24 inch or larger plume...

Ability of low profile cross-ventilated freestall barns to improve environmental conditions for dairy cattle

Recently, there has been interest in constructing mechanical ventilation with evaporative pads to improve the environmental conditions for cows during periods of heat stress. Low profile cross-ventilated freestalls with evaporative pads (LPCV) have become a popular system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how well these LPCV systems improve the temperature-humidity index...

Impact of separator efficiency and removed solids moisture content on make-up water requirements for sand recovery

Separator efficiency and moisture content of separated solids influence the make-up water requirements on a dairy seeking to utilize recycled water for sand reclamation. Additional water requirements range from 0 to 79 gallons/cow per day depending on the efficiency of the solid to liquid separation process. Make-up water includes any water stored in a containment structure...

Responses of lactating holstein cows to increasing amounts of wet corn gluten feed

Forty lactating Holstein cows were allocated into groups of 5 cows each and assigned to 8 pens containing 10 freestalls each. Each group contained 3 heifers and 2 multiparous cows. Groups were balanced by milk production and days in milk. Diets were formulated to contain none (control), 12, 24, or 36% wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) on a dry matter (DM) basis. Increasing amounts of...

Evaluate the efficacy of "heat stress audits

A project to evaluate the degree of heat stress in individual dairies was carried out in the summer of 2005. The object of this project was to develop a method to evaluate or audit how effective an individual dairy is in manag-ing heat stress. Approximately 45 herds in 20 different states were audited for the degree of heat stress cows experienced during a 72-hr period. Dairies...

Influence of facilities on cow time budgets

A model was developed to evaluate the impact of facilities on cow time budgets. The model suggests that in inadequate facilities overcrowding of the facility by 25% or more resulted because occupancy rate exceeded 100%. The model also is useful in evaluating the impact of time at milking center and milk-ing frequency on cow time budget. In general, the first groups of cows...

Consumptive water usage of evaporative pads

Consumptive water usage by evaporative pads was measured during 7 days of a 3-week period at a Kansas (KS) dairy and a 2-day pe-riod at a North Dakota (ND) dairy. Water me-ters were installed between the water hydrants, and evaporative pads at each dairy, and were monitored. Data were recorded every 30 min-utes during 5 hr at the KS site and every 15 minutes during 1 to 2.5 hr at...

Serological responses in dairy calves to various vaccines administered via needle-free or conventional needle-based injections

One hundred and four, 5- to 10-month-old Holstein heifers and steers were blocked by age within gender and randomly assigned to treatments. Calves were vaccinated with 5- way modified-live respiratory viral vaccine, Mannheimia hemolytic bacterin/toxoid, and 5- way Leptospira bacterin, administered via either needle-free or conventional needle-andsyringe injection techniques...

Impact of frequency of feedline soaking combined with evaporative air cooling in a humid environment

Heat stress in hot and humid environments reduces milk production, decreases reproduction, and increases health-related problems. The summertime environment in north-central Florida is especially difficult because the combination of high relative humidity and high temperature results in a temperaturehumidity index (THI) above the critical value of 72 for significant portions of...

Management of natural service bulls on large dairies

Natural service (NS) bulls are widely used on large dairy farms despite the wellproven genetic progress achievable through AI. Producers may choose to use NS bulls for a variety of reasons that are discussed below. In this presentation, problems encountered with the use of NS bulls on a large dairy in Kansas are described in relation to reduced reproductive performance on that...

Using vaginal temperature to evaluate heat stress in dairy cattle

A rise in body temperature is a signal that heat stress has exceeded the heat-exchange capacity of the dairy cow. Previous studies have shown a strong positive correlation between vaginal temperature and respiration rate, demonstrating a stress response to an increased body temperature. Vaginal temperature was collected by using temperature probes attached to an external data...

Impact of soaking cows housed in a tunnel-ventilated, evaporative-cooled barn in Thailand

Ten multiparous lactating Holstein cows were arranged in a replicated 5 x 5 Latin Square design to evaluate the effect of soaking frequency and volume of water per soaking on lactating cows housed in a tunnel-ventilated and evaporative-cooled freestall barn. Rectal temperature, respiration rate, and body surface temperatures were measured every 5 minutes. Treatments were: control...