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The Tropical Disease Priority Review Voucher: A Game-Changer for Tropical Disease Products

may be obtained. With these actions, the U.S. government, at least, is viewing the neglected tropical disease PRV program positively. Disclosure: Jonathan Berman is a paid consultant to Knight

Cytochrome P450 2D-mediated metabolism is not necessary for tafenoquine and primaquine to eradicate the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium berghei

Background Due to the ability of the 8-aminoquinolines (8AQs) to kill different stages of the malaria parasite, primaquine (PQ) and tafenoquine (TQ) are vital for causal prophylaxis and the eradication of erythrocytic Plasmodium sp. parasites. Recognizing the potential role of cytochrome (CYP) 450 2D6 in the metabolism and subsequent hepatic efficacy of 8-aminoquinolines, studies...

Efficacy of intravenous methylene blue, intravenous artesunate, and their combination in preclinical models of malaria

Background Intravenous artesunate (IV AS) is the present treatment of choice for severe malaria, but development of artemisinin resistance indicates that a further agent will be needed. Methylene blue (MB) is an approved human agent for IV and oral use, and is already being investigated for oral treatment of uncomplicated malaria. To initiate investigation of IV MB for severe...

Cytochrome P450 2D-mediated metabolism is not necessary for tafenoquine and primaquine to eradicate the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium berghei

Background Due to the ability of the 8-aminoquinolines (8AQs) to kill different stages of the malaria parasite, primaquine (PQ) and tafenoquine (TQ) are vital for causal prophylaxis and the eradication of erythrocytic Plasmodium sp. parasites. Recognizing the potential role of cytochrome (CYP) 450 2D6 in the metabolism and subsequent hepatic efficacy of 8-aminoquinolines, studies...

Anti-relapse activity of mirincamycin in the Plasmodium cynomolgi sporozoite-infected Rhesus monkey model

Background Mirincamycin is a close analog of the drug clindamycin used to treat Plasmodium falciparum blood stages. The clinical need to treat Plasmodium vivax dormant liver stages and prevent relapse with a drug other than primaquine led to the evaluation of mirinicamycin against liver stages in animals. Methods cis-mirinicamycin and trans-mirinicamycin were evaluated as...

Drug Discovery Algorithm for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

, Charlottesville, Virginia 2 Authors' addresses: Max Grogl , Mark Hickman, William Ellis, Thomas Hudson, Jacob Johnson, Jonathan Berman, and Richard J. Sciotti , Divi- sion of Experimental Therapeutics, Walter Reed

Does the process map influence the outcome of quality improvement work? A comparison of a sequential flow diagram and a hierarchical task analysis diagram

Background Many quality and safety improvement methods in healthcare rely on a complete and accurate map of the process. Process mapping in healthcare is often achieved using a sequential flow diagram, but there is little guidance available in the literature about the most effective type of process map to use. Moreover there is evidence that the organisation of information in an...

Intralesional Antimony for Single Lesions of Bolivian Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Background. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an ultimately self-curing disease for which systemic therapy with pentavalent antimony (Sb) is effective but with side effects. We evaluated 2 local treatments, intralesional (IL) Sb and cryotherapy, for single lesions due to Bolivian Leishmania (v.) braziliensis in a placebo-controlled study. Methods. Patients were randomized between IL Sb...

Randomized, Double-Blinded, Phase 2 Trial of WR 279,396 (Paromomycin and Gentamicin) for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama

Medical Materiel Development Activity, Fort Detrick, MD, E-mails: mara.kreishmandeitrick.mil@ mail.mil, , diane.r.ullman.civ@mail .mil, and . Janet Ransom, Jonathan Berman, and Charles Scott, Fast-Track

Efficacy of Extended (Six Weeks) Treatment with Miltefosine for Mucosal Leishmaniasis in Bolivia

0 Bioclnicas de la Fundacin FADER, Calle 60 A No. 5-54, Office 201, Bogot, Colombia 1 Jaime Rea, Margarita Valderrama, Julia Toledo, Luis Valda, Jaime Ardiles, and Jonathan Berman Centro de ... May 28, 2009. Disclosure: Jonathan Berman serves as a paid consultant to Paladin, manufacturers of miltefosine. This statement is made in the interest of full disclosure and not because the authors

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with Boggy Induration and Simultaneous Mucosal Disease

A woman had cutaneous, mucosal, and possible visceral leishmaniasis simultaneously. Many of her cutaneous lesions consisted of boggy indurations rather than customary papules, nodules, or ulcers. This unusual case was finally cured after four courses of miltefosine, one course of antimony, and two courses of Ambisome.

RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE-BLIND, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED STUDY OF MALARONE FOR MALARIA PROPHYLAXIS IN NON-IMMUNE COLOMBIAN SOLDIERS

0 North Bethesda , MD 20852 1 JAIME SOTO , JULIA TOLEDO, MAGDA LUZZ, PATRICIA GUTIERREZ, JONATHAN BERMAN Malarone was compared with placebo in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of

Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Assessment of Chloroquine/Primaquine Prophylaxis for Malaria in Nonimmune Colombian Soldiers

To improve upon the efficacy of primaquine prophylaxis for malaria (94%, Plasmodium falciparum malaria; 85%, Plasmodium vivax malaria), we administered chloroquine (300 mg weekly) in combination with primaquine (30 mg daily) to nonimmune Colombian soldiers during 16 weeks of patrol in a region of endemicity and for a further 1 week in base camp. The occurrence of symptomatic...

Efficacy of Sodium Stibogluconate Alone and in Combination with Allopurinol for Treatment of Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis

A randomized, open, controlled clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy, tolerance, and safety of sodium stibogluconate plus allopurinol and sodium stibogluconate alone as treatment of patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. In phase 1 of the study, all 22 patients with severe disease had improvement of their lesions, but only two had clinical cure (both of these...

Warning signal as a component of a compound stimulus in human eyelid conditioning

One hundred human Ss conditioned and extinguished in a parallel fashion to both the warning signal of a masking probability learning task and the programmed CS. Acquisition and extinction curves were similar for early and nonearly responders though early responders had a higher response rate during acquisition.