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Altered CSMD1 Expression Alters Cocaine-Conditioned Place Preference: Mutual Support for a Complex Locus from Human and Mouse Models

The CUB and sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) gene harbors signals provided by clusters of nearby SNPs with 10-2 > p > 10-8 associations in genome wide association (GWAS) studies of addiction-related phenotypes. A CSMD1 intron 3 SNP displays p < 10-8 association with schizophrenia and more modest associations with individual differences in performance on tests of cognitive...

Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors in a Mouse Model of Aβ Amyloidosis: Immunohistochemical Analysis and Suitability as a PET Biomarker of Neuroinflammation

In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), one of the early responses to Aβ amyloidosis is recruitment of microglia to areas of new plaque. Microglial receptors such as cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) might be a suitable target for development of PET radiotracers that could serve as imaging biomarkers of Aβ-induced neuroinflammation. Mouse models of amyloidosis (J20APPswe/ind and APPswe/PS1ΔE9...

Association of DJ-1 and parkin mediated by pathogenic DJ-1 mutations and oxidative stress

The identification of rare monogenic forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) has provided tremendous insight into the molecular pathogenesis of this disorder. Heritable mutations in α-synuclein, parkin, DJ-1 and PINK1 cause familial forms of PD. In the more common sporadic form of PD, oxidative stress and derangements in mitochondrial complex-I function are considered to play a...

Abundant Quantitative Trait Loci Exist for DNA Methylation and Gene Expression in Human Brain

A fundamental challenge in the post-genome era is to understand and annotate the consequences of genetic variation, particularly within the context of human tissues. We present a set of integrated experiments that investigate the effects of common genetic variability on DNA methylation and mRNA expression in four human brain regions each from 150 individuals (600 samples total...

Discovery and genetic localization of Down syndrome cerebellar phenotypes using the Ts65Dn mouse

Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation and affects many aspects of brain development. DS individuals exhibit an overall reduction in brain size with a disproportionately greater reduction in cerebellar volume. The Ts65Dn mouse is segmentally trisomic for the distal 12–15 Mb of mouse chromosome 16, a region that shows perfect conserved linkage...

Stress-induced alterations in parkin solubility promote parkin aggregation and compromise parkin's protective function

Mutations in parkin are currently recognized as the most common cause of familial Parkinsonism. Emerging evidence also suggests that parkin expression variability may confer a risk for the development of the more common, sporadic form of Parkinson's disease (PD). Supporting this, we have recently demonstrated that parkin solubility in the human brain becomes altered with age. As...

The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood

Traynor, Colin Smith, Dan L. Longo, Daniah Trabzuni, Juan Troncoso, Marcel van der Brug, Michael E. Weale, Richard O'Brien, Robert Johnson, Robert Walker, Ronald H. Zielke, Sampath Arepalli, Mina Ryten