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Evidence-Based Neuroethics, Deep Brain Stimulation and Personality - Deflating, but not Bursting, the Bubble

Gilbert et al. have raised important questions about the empirical grounding of neuroethical analyses of the apparent phenomenon of Deep Brain Stimulation ‘causing’ personality changes. In this paper, we consider how to make neuroethical claims appropriately calibrated to existing evidence, and the role that philosophical neuroethics has to play in this enterprise of ‘evidence...

Brainjacking in deep brain stimulation and autonomy

funded by the Wellcome Trust (grant number 203195/Z/16/Z) for this research. Julian Savulescu was also funded by the Wellcome Trust (grant number 104848/Z/14/Z), and is a director of??The Wellcome Centre

Social Policy and Cognitive Enhancement: Lessons from Chess

Should the development of pharmacological cognitive enhancers raise worries about doping in cognitively demanding activities? In this paper, we argue against using current evidence relating to enhancement to justify a ban on cognitive enhancers using the example of chess. It is a mistake to assume that enhanced cognitive functioning on psychometric testing is transferable to...

The Moral Importance of Reflective Empathy

: Clarendon Press, 1969 . 5. Persson , Ingmar, and Julian Savulescu . 2012 . Unfit for the future . Oxford: Oxford U. P. 6. Coplan , Amy. 2011 . Understanding empathy: Its features and effect . In Empathy, ed

The moral obligation to be vaccinated: utilitarianism, contractualism, and collective easy rescue

We argue that individuals who have access to vaccines and for whom vaccination is not medically contraindicated have a moral obligation to contribute to the realisation of herd immunity by being vaccinated. Contrary to what some have claimed, we argue that this individual moral obligation exists in spite of the fact that each individual vaccination does not significantly affect...

The Artificial Moral Advisor. The “Ideal Observer” Meets Artificial Intelligence

We describe a form of moral artificial intelligence that could be used to improve human moral decision-making. We call it the “artificial moral advisor” (AMA). The AMA would implement a quasi-relativistic version of the “ideal observer” famously described by Roderick Firth. We describe similarities and differences between the AMA and Firth’s ideal observer. Like Firth’s ideal...

Expensive care? Resource-based thresholds for potentially inappropriate treatment in intensive care

In intensive care, disputes sometimes arise when patients or surrogates strongly desire treatment, yet health professionals regard it as potentially inappropriate. While professional guidelines confirm that physicians are not always obliged to provide requested treatment, determining when treatment would be inappropriate is extremely challenging. One potential reason for refusing...

The Duty to be Morally Enhanced

did not. So, coercion per se is not morally wrong, and some instances of moral bioenhancement could be among the cases in which it is justified. Acknowledgements Julian Savulescu was supported by the

Cost-equivalence and Pluralism in Publicly-funded Health-care Systems

Clinical guidelines summarise available evidence on medical treatment, and provide recommendations about the most effective and cost-effective options for patients with a given condition. However, sometimes patients do not desire the best available treatment. Should doctors in a publicly-funded healthcare system ever provide sub-optimal medical treatment? On one view, it would be...

Moral Bioenhancement, Freedom and Reason

Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. 1. Harris , John. 2016 . How to be good . Oxford: Oxford U. P. 2. Persson , Ingmar, and Julian Savulescu . 2012 . Unfit for the future . Oxford

Taxing Meat: Taking Responsibility for One’s Contribution to Antibiotic Resistance

animal products obtained with the use of antibiotics. Acknowledgements Research by Alberto Giubilini, Thomas Douglas, Julian Savulescu, and Hannah Maslen was supported by the Oxford Martin Programme

Procedural Moral Enhancement

While philosophers are often concerned with the conditions for moral knowledge or justification, in practice something arguably less demanding is just as, if not more, important – reliably making correct moral judgments. Judges and juries should hand down fair sentences, government officials should decide on just laws, members of ethics committees should make sound...

Supernatural Belief Is Not Modulated by Intuitive Thinking Style or Cognitive Inhibition

Soares 3 Lluis Oviedo 4 Mathilde Hernu 5 Karolina Rokita 6 Julian Savulescu 1 Riikka M?tt?nen 7 0 Brain, Belief, & Behaviour Lab, Centre for Advances in Behavioural Science, Coventry University , Coventry

The Ethics of Deep Brain Stimulation for the Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa

There is preliminary evidence, from case reports and investigational studies, to suggest that Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) could be used to treat some patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Although this research is at an early stage, the invasive nature of the intervention and the vulnerability of the potential patients are such that anticipatory ethical analysis is warranted. In...

Ovarian reserve screening: a scientific and ethical analysis

Ovarian reserve (OR) screening of the general population is generally not advocated as it has not been conclusively established to reflect immediate potential for natural conception, while it may also potentially create anxiety for women. However, in this paper, we argue in support of screening of the general population for diminished OR. First, OR tests such as measurements of...

Disability, discrimination and death: is it justified to ration life saving treatment for disabled newborn infants?

Disability might be relevant to decisions about life support in intensive care in several ways. It might affect the chance of treatment being successful, or a patient’s life expectancy with treatment. It may affect whether treatment is in a patient’s best interests. However, even if treatment would be of overall benefit it may be unaffordable and consequently unable to be...

Procreative beneficence and in vitro gametogenesis

cells, or 33 Ibid . 34 Thomas Douglas and Julian Savulescu, 'Using Unwanted Embryos in Research ', EMBO Reports 10 (4), 2009. 307-12. naturally-produced sperm from a fertile male, could then be screened

Cohen’s Conservatism and Human Enhancement

In an intriguing essay, G. A. Cohen has defended a conservative bias in favour of existing value. In this paper, we consider whether Cohen’s conservatism raises a new challenge to the use of human enhancement technologies. We develop some of Cohen’s suggestive remarks into a new line of argument against human enhancement that, we believe, is in several ways superior to existing...

Attitudes of Lay People to Withdrawal of Treatment in Brain Damaged Patients

Jacob Gipson Guy Kahane Julian Savulescu 0 ) Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University , Victoria, Australia Background Whether patients in the vegetative state (VS