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Search: authors:"Julie Overbaugh"

52 papers found.
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Higher prevalence of viral control in HIV-1-infected women in serodiscordant relationships

analysis: Kathryn Peebles. Funding acquisition: R. Scott McClelland, Julie Overbaugh, Carey Farquhar, Brandon L. Guthrie. Methodology: Barbra A. Richardson, Brandon L. Guthrie. Writing ? original draft ... : Kathryn Peebles. 9 / 11 Writing ? review & editing: Kathryn Peebles, R. Scott McClelland, Julie Overbaugh, Barbra A. Richardson, Rose Bosire, James N. Kiarie, Carey Farquhar, Brandon L. Guthrie. 10 / 11 1

The Role of Cell-Associated Virus in Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to contribute to the global burden of disease despite great advances in antiretroviral (ARV) treatment and prophylaxis. In this review, we discuss the proposed mechanisms of MTCT, evidence for cell-free and cell-associated transmission in different routes of MTCT, and the impact of ARVs on virus...

The Broad Neutralizing Antibody Responses after HIV-1 Superinfection Are Not Dominated by Antibodies Directed to Epitopes Common in Single Infection

HIV-1 vaccines designed to date have failed to elicit neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) that are capable of protecting against globally diverse HIV-1 subtypes. One relevant setting to study the development of a strong, cross-reactive Nab response is HIV-1 superinfection (SI), defined as sequential infections from different source partners. SI has previously been shown to lead to a...

HIV-Specific Antibodies Capable of ADCC Are Common in Breastmilk and Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Transmission in Women with High Viral Loads

There are limited data describing the functional characteristics of HIV-1 specific antibodies in breast milk (BM) and their role in breastfeeding transmission. The ability of BM antibodies to bind HIV-1 envelope, neutralize heterologous and autologous viruses and direct antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) were analyzed in BM and plasma obtained soon after delivery from 10...

HIV-1 Superinfection in Women Broadens and Strengthens the Neutralizing Antibody Response

Identifying naturally-occurring neutralizing antibodies (NAb) that are cross-reactive against all global subtypes of HIV-1 is an important step toward the development of a vaccine. Establishing the host and viral determinants for eliciting such broadly NAbs is also critical for immunogen design. NAb breadth has previously been shown to be positively associated with viral...

Non-Instrumented Incubation of a Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for the Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Proviral HIV-1 DNA

Sensitive diagnostic tests for infectious diseases often employ nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAATs). However, most NAAT assays, including many isothermal amplification methods, require power-dependent instrumentation for incubation. For use in low resource settings (LRS), diagnostics that do not require consistent electricity supply would be ideal. Recombinase...

A prospective study of endothelial activation biomarkers, including plasma angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, in Kenyan women initiating antiretroviral therapy

Background HIV-1-related inflammation is associated with increased levels of biomarkers of vascular adhesion and endothelial activation, and may increase production of the inflammatory protein angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2), an adverse prognostic biomarker in severe systemic infection. We hypothesized that antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation would decrease endothelial activation...

Loss to Follow-Up as a Competing Risk in an Observational Study of HIV-1 Incidence

Objective Conventional survival estimates may be biased if loss to follow-up (LTF) is associated with the outcome of interest. Our goal was to assess whether the association between sexual risk behavior and HIV-1 acquisition changed after accounting for LTF with competing risks regression. Methods HIV-1-seronegative women who enrolled in a Kenyan sex worker cohort from 1993–2007...

Antiretroviral Strategies to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV: Striking a Balance between Efficacy, Feasibility, and Resistance

Dara Lehman and colleagues discuss a randomized trial that found that adding up to a week of twice-daily zidovudine+lamivudine to single-dose nevirapine reduces the risk of resistance in mothers and infants.

Genetic Drift of HIV Populations in Culture

Populations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) undergo a surprisingly large amount of genetic drift in infected patients despite very large population sizes, which are predicted to be mostly deterministic. Several models have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, but all of them implicitly assume that the process of virus replication itself does not contribute to...

Risk of Drug Resistance Among Persons Acquiring HIV Within a Randomized Clinical Trial of Single- or Dual-Agent Preexposure Prophylaxis

Background. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) or TDF alone reduces the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Understanding the risk of antiretroviral resistance selected by PrEP during breakthrough infections is important because of the risk of treatment failure during subsequent antiretroviral use...

HIV-1 Superinfection Occurs Less Frequently Than Initial Infection in a Cohort of High-Risk Kenyan Women

HIV superinfection (reinfection) has been reported in several settings, but no study has been designed and powered to rigorously compare its incidence to that of initial infection. Determining whether HIV infection reduces the risk of superinfection is critical to understanding whether an immune response to natural HIV infection is protective. This study compares the incidence of...

The Influence of Hormonal Contraceptive Use on HIV-1 Transmission and Disease Progression

Women account for nearly one-half of new human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections worldwide, including the majority of infections in Africa. Biological and epidemiological studies suggest that hormonal contraceptive use could influence susceptibility to HIV-1, as well as infectivity and disease progression for those who become infected. However, not all studies have...

Enhancing Exposure of HIV-1 Neutralization Epitopes through Mutations in gp41

Background The generation of broadly neutralizing antibodies is a priority in the design of vaccines against HIV-1. Unfortunately, most antibodies to HIV-1 are narrow in their specificity, and a basic understanding of how to develop antibodies with broad neutralizing activity is needed. Designing methods to target antibodies to conserved HIV-1 epitopes may allow for the...

Breast Milk HIV-1 RNA Levels and Female Sex Are Associated With HIV-1–Specific CD8+ T-Cell Responses in HIV-1–Exposed, Uninfected Infants in Kenya

Background. Although evidence supports a relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–1 exposure and HIV-1−specific CD8+ T cell responses, studies have not demonstrated a direct association between the quantity of HIV-1 to which a person is exposed and the presence or absence of a response. Methods. From 1999 to 2005, maternal HIV-1 RNA levels were measured in blood...

Evaluation of a single round polymerase chain reaction assay using dried blood spots for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants in an African setting

Bhavna H Chohan Sandra Emery 0 Dalton Wamalwa Grace John-Stewart Maxwel Majiwa Musa Ng'ayo Steve Froggett 0 Julie Overbaugh 0 0 Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (1100

Incidence and Correlates of HIV-1 RNA Detection in the Breast Milk of Women Receiving HAART for the Prevention of HIV-1 Transmission

Background The incidence and correlates of breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection were determined in intensively sampled women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. Methods Women initiated HAART at 34 weeks of pregnancy. Breast milk was collected every 2–5 days during 1 month postpartum for measurements of cell...

Chronic HIV-1 Infection Frequently Fails to Protect against Superinfection

Reports of HIV-1 superinfection (re-infection) have demonstrated that the immune response generated against one strain of HIV-1 does not always protect against other strains. However, studies to determine the incidence of HIV-1 superinfection have yielded conflicting results. Furthermore, few studies have attempted to identify superinfection cases occurring more than a year after...

A prospective study of vaginal trichomoniasis and HIV-1 shedding in women on antiretroviral therapy

Background Trichomonas vaginalis has been associated with increased vaginal HIV-1 RNA shedding in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve women. The effect of trichomoniasis on vaginal HIV-1 shedding in ART-treated women has not been characterized. We tested the hypothesis that T. vaginalis infection would increase vaginal HIV-1 RNA shedding in women on ART, and that successful...