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Editor's Highlight: Periodic Exposure to Smartphone-Mimic Low-Luminance Blue Light Induces Retina Damage Through Bcl-2/BAX-Dependent Apoptosis

Blue light-induced phototoxicity plays an important role in retinal degeneration and might cause damage as a consequence of smartphone dependency. Here, we investigated the effects of periodic exposure to blue light-emitting diode in a cell model and a rat retinal damage model. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were subjected to blue light in vitro and the effects of blue...

Gold Nanoparticles Increase Endothelial Paracellular Permeability by Altering Components of Endothelial Tight Junctions, and Increase Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability in Mice

Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) are being increasingly used as constituents in cosmetics, biosensors, bioimaging, photothermal therapy, and targeted drug delivery. This elevated exposure to Au-NPs poses systemic risks in humans, particularly risks associated with the biodistribution of Au-NPs and their potent interaction with biological barriers. We treated human umbilical vein...

Chloramphenicol Causes Mitochondrial Stress, Decreases ATP Biosynthesis, Induces Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 Expression, and Solid-Tumor Cell Invasion

Overuse and abuse of antibiotics can increase the risk of cancer. Chloramphenicol can inhibit both bacterial and mitochondrial protein synthesis, causing mitochondrial stress and decreased ATP biosynthesis. Chloramphenicol can accelerate cancer progression; however, the underlying mechanisms of chloramphenicol in carcinogenesis and cancer progression are still unclear. We found...

Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles–Induced Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Expression Requires Rac1/Cdc42, Mixed Lineage Kinase 3, and c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Activation in Endothelial Cells

The explosive development of nanotechnology has caused an increase in unintended biohazards in humans and in the ecosystem. Similar to particulate matter, nanoparticles (NPs) are strongly correlated with the increase in incidences of cardiovascular diseases, yet the mechanisms behind this correlation remain unclear. Within the testing concentrations of 0.1–10 μg/ml, which did not...

Motorcycle Exhaust Particles Induce Airway Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness in BALB/C Mice

A number of large studies have reported that environmental pollutants from fossil fuel combustion can cause deleterious effects to the immune system, resulting in an allergic reaction leading to respiratory tract damage. In this study, we investigated the effect of motorcycle exhaust particles (MEP), a major pollutant in the Taiwan urban area, on airway inflammation and airway...