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Resolving deep-sea pelagic saccopharyngiform eel mysteries: Identification of Neocyema and Monognathidae leptocephali and establishment of a new fish family "Neocyematidae" based on larvae, adults and mitogenomic gene orders

: Masaki Miya. Investigation: Jan Y. Poulsen, Michael J. Miller, Tetsuya Sado, Reinhold Hanel, Katsumi Tsukamoto, Masaki Miya. Methodology: Jan Y. Poulsen, Michael J. Miller, Tetsuya Sado. Project ... administration: Katsumi Tsukamoto, Masaki Miya. Resources: Jan Y. Poulsen, Michael J. Miller, Reinhold Hanel, Katsumi Tsukamoto. 19 / 23 Writing ? original draft: Jan Y. Poulsen, Michael J. Miller. Writing

De Novo Assembly of the Whole Transcriptome of the Wild Embryo, Preleptocephalus, Leptocephalus, and Glass Eel of Anguilla japonica and Deciphering the Digestive and Absorptive Capacities during Early Development

Natural stocks of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) have decreased drastically because of overfishing, habitat destruction, and changes in the ocean environment over the past few decades. However, to date, artificial mass production of glass eels is far from reality because of the lack of appropriate feed for the eel larvae. In this study, wild glass eel, leptocephali...

Spawning Sites of the Japanese Eel in Relation to Oceanographic Structure and the West Mariana Ridge

The Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, spawns within the North Equatorial Current that bifurcates into both northward and southward flows in its westward region, so its spawning location and larval transport dynamics seem important for understanding fluctuations in its recruitment to East Asia. Intensive research efforts determined that Japanese eels spawn along the western side of...

Efficiency of Peptide Nucleic Acid-Directed PCR Clamping and Its Application in the Investigation of Natural Diets of the Japanese Eel Leptocephali

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-clamping using blocking primer and DNA-analogs, such as peptide nucleotide acid (PNA), may be used to selectively amplify target DNA for molecular diet analysis. We investigated PCR-clamping efficiency by studying PNA position and mismatch with complementary DNA by designing PNAs at five different positions on the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed...

The Pituitary Gland of the European Eel Reveals Massive Expression of Genes Involved in the Melanocortin System

Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland regulate important processes such as development, growth and metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and body pigmentation. Synthesis and secretion of pituitary hormones are regulated by different factors from the hypothalamus, but also through feedback mechanisms from peripheral organs, and from the pituitary itself. In the European...

Primitive Duplicate Hox Clusters in the European Eel's Genome

The enigmatic life cycle and elongated body of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L., 1758) have long motivated scientific enquiry. Recently, eel research has gained in urgency, as the population has dwindled to the point of critical endangerment. We have assembled a draft genome in order to facilitate advances in all provinces of eel biology. Here, we use the genome to...