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Search: authors:"Kirsi H. Pietiläinen"

17 papers found.
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Smoking induces coordinated DNA methylation and gene expression changes in adipose tissue with consequences for metabolic health

BackgroundTobacco smoking is a risk factor for multiple diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Many smoking-associated signals have been detected in the blood methylome, but the extent to which these changes are widespread to metabolically relevant tissues, and impact gene expression or metabolic health, remains unclear.MethodsWe investigated smoking-associated...

Genome-wide blood DNA methylation alterations at regulatory elements and heterochromatic regions in monozygotic twins discordant for obesity and liver fat

Background The current epidemic of obesity and associated diseases calls for swift actions to better understand the mechanisms by which genetics and environmental factors affect metabolic health in humans. Monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs showing discordance for obesity suggest that epigenetic influences represent one such mechanism. We studied genome-wide leukocyte DNA methylation...

GLP-1 Responses Are Heritable and Blunted in Acquired Obesity With High Liver Fat and Insulin Resistance

OBJECTIVE Impaired incretin response represents an early and uniform defect in type 2 diabetes, but the contributions of genes and the environment are poorly characterized.

Minor Contribution of Endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-2 to Postprandial Lipemia in Obese Men

Context Glucose and lipids stimulate the gut-hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but the effect of these on human postprandial lipid metabolism is not fully clarified. Objective To explore the responses of GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP after a fat-rich meal compared to the same responses after an oral glucose tolerance test...

Influence of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR Polymorphism) on the Relation between Brain 5-HT Transporter Binding and Heart Rate Corrected Cardiac Repolarization Interval

Objective Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR polymorphism) predicts the degree of structural and functional connectivity in the brain, and less consistently the degree of vulnerability for anxiety and depressive disorders. It is less known how 5-HTTLPR polymorphism influences on the coupling between brain and neuronal cardiovascular control. The present study...

The Effect of Alcohol Consumption on Later Obesity in Early Adulthood — A Population-based Longitudinal Study

Aims: The study aimed to determine whether alcohol use during late adolescence contributes to the weight gain from adolescence to young adulthood or risk of obesity or waist circumference at young adulthood. Methods: A population-based, longitudinal study of 5563 Finnish twins born in 1975–1979 and surveyed at ages 16 (T1), 17 (T2), 18 (T3) and 23–27 (T4) years. Drinking habits...

Adipose Co-expression networks across Finns and Mexicans identify novel triglyceride-associated genes

Background High serum triglyceride (TG) levels is an established risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Fat is stored in the form of TGs in human adipose tissue. We hypothesized that gene co-expression networks in human adipose tissue may be correlated with serum TG levels and help reveal novel genes involved in TG regulation. Methods Gene co-expression networks were...

Metabolic Signatures of Adiposity in Young Adults: Mendelian Randomization Analysis and Effects of Weight Change

In this study, Wurtz and colleagues investigated to what extent elevated body mass index (BMI) within the normal weight range has causal influences on the detailed systemic metabolite profile in early adulthood using Mendelian randomization analysis. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Bacterial Endotoxin Activity in Human Serum Is Associated With Dyslipidemia, Insulin Resistance, Obesity, and Chronic Inflammation

OBJECTIVE To investigate whether bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity in human serum is associated with the components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in type 1 diabetic patients with various degrees of kidney disease and patients with IgA glomerulonephritis (IgAGN).

Acquired Obesity Is Associated with Changes in the Serum Lipidomic Profile Independent of Genetic Effects – A Monozygotic Twin Study

Both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the etiology of obesity and the associated lipid disturbances. We determined whether acquired obesity is associated with changes in global serum lipid profiles independent of genetic factors in young adult monozygotic (MZ) twins. 14 healthy MZ pairs discordant for obesity (10 to 25 kg weight difference) and ten weight...

Use of Genome-Wide Expression Data to Mine the “Gray Zone” of GWA Studies Leads to Novel Candidate Obesity Genes

To get beyond the “low-hanging fruits” so far identified by genome-wide association (GWA) studies, new methods must be developed in order to discover the numerous remaining genes that estimates of heritability indicate should be contributing to complex human phenotypes, such as obesity. Here we describe a novel integrative method for complex disease gene identification utilizing...

Global Transcript Profiles of Fat in Monozygotic Twins Discordant for BMI: Pathways behind Acquired Obesity

Background The acquired component of complex traits is difficult to dissect in humans. Obesity represents such a trait, in which the metabolic and molecular consequences emerge from complex interactions of genes and environment. With the substantial morbidity associated with obesity, a deeper understanding of the concurrent metabolic changes is of considerable importance. The...

Tracking of Body Size from Birth to Late Adolescence: Contributions of Birth Length, Birth Weight, Duration of Gestation, Parents' Body Size, and Twinship

Birth weight has correlated positively with adult body mass index (BMI), but rarely have birth length, duration of gestation, or parents' body size been taken into account. The authors examined tracking of birth length and weight, adjusted for gestational age, to late adolescence, with special reference to parents' height and BMI. Longitudinal information from a nationally...

Association of Lipidome Remodeling in the Adipocyte Membrane with Acquired Obesity in Humans

The authors describe a new approach to studying cellular lipid profiles and propose a compensatory mechanism that may help maintain the normal membrane function of adipocytes in the context of obesity.

Genetic architecture of circulating lipid levels

Serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) are important heritable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of circulating lipid levels have identified numerous loci, a substantial portion of the heritability of...

Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Common Variants Associated with Brachial Circumference: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Cohorts

Brachial circumference (BC), also known as upper arm or mid arm circumference, can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and fat tissue, which are distributed differently in men and women. Analysis of anthropometric measures of peripheral fat distribution such as BC could help in understanding the complex pathophysiology behind overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study...