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LIN28B is highly expressed in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) and suppressed through the restoration of SMARCB1

Background Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant brain tumor that almost exclusively develops in young children. AT/RT belongs to the embryonal brain tumor group, comprising primitive tumors recapitulating the early development of the central nervous system during embryogenesis. The loss of SMARCB1 protein expression is a hallmark of AT/RT pathogenesis...

Chemokine Ligand 5 (CCL5) Derived from Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells (ECFCs) Mediates Recruitment of Smooth Muscle Progenitor Cells (SPCs) toward Critical Vascular Locations in Moyamoya Disease

The etiology and pathogenesis of moyamoya disease (MMD) are still obscure. Previous studies indicated that angiogenic chemokines may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recently, it was discovered that peripheral blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SPCs) have defective functions in MMD patients...

Reply to “Mechanisms of postoperative progression of steno-occlusive lesions in the posterior cerebral artery in moyamoya disease”

Ji Yeoun Lee Kyu-Chang Wang - We thank Dr. Mugikura and his colleague for their comments on our paper Posterior cerebral artery involvement in moyamoya disease: initial infarction and angle between

In vivo bioluminescence imaging for leptomeningeal dissemination of medulloblastoma in mouse models

Background The primary cause of treatment failure in medulloblastomas (MB) is the development of leptomeningeal dissemination (seeding). For translational research on MB seeding, one of the major challenges is the development of reliable experimental models that simulate the seeding and growth characteristics of MBs. To overcome this obstacle, we improved an experimental mouse...

Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Target Brain Tumor-Initiating Cells

In neuro-oncology, the biology of neural stem cells (NSCs) has been pursued in two ways: as tumor-initiating cells (TICs) and as a potential cell-based vehicle for gene therapy. NSCs as well as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to possess tumor tropism capacities. However, there is little data on the migratory capacity of MSCs toward brain tumor-initiating cells...

ID3 contributes to cerebrospinal fluid seeding and poor prognosis in medulloblastoma

Background The inhibitor of differentiation (ID) genes have been implicated as promoters of tumor progression and metastasis in many human cancers. The current study investigated the expression and functional roles of ID genes in seeding and prognosis of medulloblastoma. Methods ID gene expression was screened in human medulloblastoma tissues. Knockdown of ID3 gene was performed...

In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging for Prolonged Survival of Transplanted Human Neural Stem Cells Using 3D Biocompatible Scaffold in Corticectomized Rat Model

Jin Do Hun Lee Han Young Kim Han Na Cho Hye Jin Chung Yunwoong Park Hyewon Youn Seung Jin Lee Hong J. Lee Seung U. Kim Kyu-Chang Wang Dong Soo Lee Ramasamy Paulmurugan, Stanford University School of

Tumor origin and growth pattern at diagnosis and surgical hypothalamic damage predict obesity in pediatric craniopharyngioma

Severe obesity is a major problem in pediatric craniopharyngioma. We investigated whether tumor origin, growth pattern, and surgical damage predict obesity in pediatric craniopharyngioma. Subjects were 58 patients (30 males) with no tumor recurrence during the first postoperative 18 months. Preoperative hypothalamic involvement was classified into no (pre_G0, n = 19), little...

Therapeutic efficacy and safety of TRAIL-producing human adipose tissue–derived mesenchymal stem cells against experimental brainstem glioma

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have an extensive migratory capacity for gliomas, which is comparable to that of neural stem cells. Among the various types of MSCs, human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hAT-MSC) emerge as one of the most attractive vehicles for gene therapy because of their high throughput, lack of ethical concerns, and availability and ease of isolation. We evaluated...

Clinicopathological features and global genomic copy number alterations of pilomyxoid astrocytoma in the hypothalamus/optic pathway: comparative analysis with pilocytic astrocytoma using array-based comparative genomic hybridization

Pilomyxoid astrocytoma is a recently identified variant of pilocytic astrocytoma. We studied 11 circumscribed astrocytomas with focal (n=5) or diffuse (n=6) pilomyxoid features and compared them with 17 pilocytic astrocytomas from the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region in children. In one patient, a tumor that recurred after initial surgery had changed from pure-form pilomyxoid...

Cerebrospinal fluid M staging for medulloblastoma: Reappraisal of Chang's M staging based on the CSF flow

Tumor seeding is a strong negative prognostic factor for patients with medulloblastoma. Because Chang's M staging is based primarily on CT and myelographic findings and might be contradictory to the direction of normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow, seeding patterns and appropriate staging of medulloblastoma need to be revisited in patients diagnosed in the MRI era. We...

Prognostic classification of pediatric medulloblastoma based on chromosome 17p loss, expression of MYCC and MYCN, and Wnt pathway activation

Pediatric medulloblastoma is considered a highly heterogeneous disease and a new strategy of risk stratification to optimize therapeutic outcomes is required. We aimed to investigate a new risk-stratification approach based on expression profiles of medulloblastoma cohorts. We analyzed gene expression profiles of 30 primary medulloblastomas and detected strong evidence that poor...

Spinal intramedullary lipoma: report of three cases

Study design: Case report.Objective: To report three cases of spinal intramedullary lipoma seen in the last 10 years and present the clinical characteristics and surgical outcome of these cases.Method: Two patients were boys aged 12 years and 7 months, respectively. The other was a female patient aged 6 months. Chief complaints were hemiparesis, back swelling and thoracic...

Subgroup-specific structural variation across 1,000 medulloblastoma genomes

Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant paediatric brain tumour, is currently treated with nonspecific cytotoxic therapies including surgery, whole-brain radiation, and aggressive chemotherapy. As medulloblastoma exhibits marked intertumoural heterogeneity, with at least four distinct molecular variants, previous attempts to identify targets for therapy have been underpowered...

SURGICAL THERAPIES

INTRODUCTION: The role of aggressive surgical resection for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is controversial, with conflicting evidence published on the effect of extent of resection on outcome. We analyzed our patient population to determine if there was a correlation between greater extent of resection and overall survival or progression-free survival (PFS) in our neurosurgical...

MEDULLOBLASTOMA

Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common children brain cancer. Recent advances in cancer biology strMBongly suggest that impaired microRNAs expression is one of the critical events driving cancer development. Previous studies of microRNA expression profiling suggested hsa-miR-383 as one of the down-regulated microRNAs in MB. However, the functions of this microRNA in MB remain...

-Omics and Prognostic Markers

BACKGROUND: Several blood biomarkers have been established for the early diagnosis, screening, and follow-up of non-central nervous system cancers. However, there is lack of knowledge on biochemical blood alterations in brain tumor patients. METHODS: We prospectively studied 109 adult brain tumor patients with diffuse low-grade glioma (WHO II, n = 8), anaplastic glioma (WHO III...