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Search: authors:"Lawn, Stephen D."

26 papers found.
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Support and performance improvement for primary health care workers in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review of intervention design and methods

Primary health care workers (HCWs) in low- and middle-income settings (LMIC) often work in challenging conditions in remote, rural areas, in isolation from the rest of the health system and particularly specialist care. Much attention has been given to implementation of interventions to support quality and performance improvement for workers in such settings. However, little is...

Detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine is indicative of disseminated TB with renal involvement in patients living with HIV and advanced immunodeficiency: evidence and implications

TB is the leading cause of HIV/AIDS-related deaths globally. New diagnostic tools are urgently needed to avert deaths from undiagnosed HIV-associated TB. Although simple assays that detect lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine have been commercially available for years, their specific role and utility were initially misunderstood, such that they have been slower to emerge from the...

Xpert MTB/RIF ― why the lack of morbidity and mortality impact in intervention trials?

Compared with smear microscopy, the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert), with superior accuracy and capacity to diagnose rifampicin resistance, has advanced TB diagnostic capability. However, recent trials of Xpert impact have not demonstrated reductions in patient morbidity and mortality. We conducted a narrative review of Xpert impact trials to summarize which patient-relevant outcomes...

Anemia, Blood Transfusion Requirements and Mortality Risk in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults Requiring Acute Medical Admission to Hospital in South Africa

Background. Morbidity and mortality remain high among hospitalized patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa despite widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy. Severe anemia is likely one important driver, and some evidence suggests that blood transfusions may accelerate HIV progression and paradoxically increase short-term mortality...

Anemia, Blood Transfusion Requirements and Mortality Risk in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults Requiring Acute Medical Admission to Hospital in South Africa

Background. Morbidity and mortality remain high among hospitalized patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa despite widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy. Severe anemia is likely one important driver, and some evidence suggests that blood transfusions may accelerate HIV progression and paradoxically increase short-term mortality...

Challenges in Evaluating the Cost-effectiveness of New Diagnostic Tests for HIV-Associated Tuberculosis

With an emerging array of rapid diagnostic tests for tuberculosis, cost-effectiveness analyses are needed to inform scale-up in various populations and settings. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–associated tuberculosis poses unique challenges in estimating and interpreting the cost-effectiveness of novel diagnostic tools. First, gains in sensitivity and specificity do not...

Characteristics and Early Outcomes of Patients With Xpert MTB/RIF-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis Diagnosed During Screening Before Antiretroviral Therapy

Background. A proportion of patients with tuberculosis diagnosed by sputum culture during screening before antiretroviral therapy (ART) have false-negative Xpert MTB/RIF assay results (Xpert-negative tuberculosis). We determined the characteristics and early ART program outcomes of such patients.

Tuberculosis Transmission to Young Children in a South African Community: Modeling Household and Community Infection Risks

Background. Tuberculosis transmission is determined by contact between infectious and susceptible individuals. A recent study reported a 4% annual risk of child tuberculosis infection in a southern African township. A model was used to explore the interactions between prevalence of adult tuberculosis infection, adult-to-child contacts, and household ventilation, which could...