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Acetobixan, an Inhibitor of Cellulose Synthesis Identified by Microbial Bioprospecting

In plants, cellulose biosynthesis is an essential process for anisotropic growth and therefore is an ideal target for inhibition. Based on the documented utility of small-molecule inhibitors to dissect complex cellular processes we identified a cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor (CBI), named acetobixan, by bio-prospecting among compounds secreted by endophytic microorganisms...

Antibodies from women urogenitally infected with C. trachomatis predominantly recognized the plasmid protein pgp3 in a conformation-dependent manner

Background C. trachomatis organisms carry a cryptic plasmid that encodes 8 open reading frames designated as pORF1 to 8. It is not clear whether all 8 pORFs are expressed during C. trachomatis infection in humans and information on the functionality of the plasmid proteins is also very limited. Results When antibodies from women urogenitally infected with C. trachomatis were...

Chlamydia trachomatis GlgA Is Secreted into Host Cell Cytoplasm

Glycogen has been localized both inside and outside Chlamydia trachomatis organisms. We now report that C. trachomatis glycogen synthase (GlgA) was detected in both chlamydial organism-associated and -free forms. The organism-free GlgA molecules were localized both in the lumen of chlamydial inclusions and in the cytosol of host cells. The cytosolic GlgA displayed a distribution...

Identification of a Novel Nuclear Localization Signal Sequence in Chlamydia trachomatis-Secreted Hypothetical Protein CT311

We previously reported that Chlamydia trachomatis hypothetical protein CT311 was secreted out of chlamydial inclusion and into host cell cytosol. We now found that CT311 further entered host cell nucleus at the late stage of infection and continued to accumulate in the nucleus of C. trachomatis-infected cells. When CT311 was expressed via a transgene in mammalian cells, CT311...

Mouse primordial germ cells produce cysts that partially fragment prior to meiosis

Lei Lei 0 Allan C. Spradling () 0 0 Howard Hughes Medical Institute Research Laboratories, Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington , 3520 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218

Oviduct Infection and Hydrosalpinx in DBA1/j Mice Is Induced by Intracervical but Not Intravaginal Inoculation with Chlamydia muridarum

Intravaginal infection with C. muridarum in mice often results in hydrosalpinx similar to that found in women urogenitally infected with C. trachomatis, making the C. muridarum lower genital tract infection murine model suitable for studying C. trachomatis pathogenesis. To our surprise, DBA1/j mice were highly resistant to hydrosalpinx following an intravaginal infection with C...

Role of PCSK5 Expression in Mouse Ovarian Follicle Development: Identification of the Inhibin α- and β-Subunits as Candidate Substrates

Inhibin and activin are essential dimeric glycoproteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) superfamily. Inhibin is a heterodimer of α- and β-subunits, whereas activin is a homodimer of β-subunits. Production of inhibin is regulated during the reproductive cycle and requires the processing of pro-ligands to produce mature hormone. Furin is a subtilisin-like...

Rottlerin-Mediated Inhibition of Chlamydia trachomatis Growth and Uptake of Sphingolipids Is Independent of p38-Regulated/Activated Protein Kinase (PRAK)

We previously found that rottlerin, a plant-derived small molecule compound, profoundly inhibited Chlamydia trachomatis growth and blocked sphingolipid trafficking from host cell Golgi into chlamydial inclusions. Since the p38-regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK) is a known target of rottlerin and is activated in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells, we investigated the...

TaMFT-A1 Is Associated with Seed Germination Sensitive to Temperature in Winter Wheat

The ability of seed to germinate under favorable environmental conditions is critical for seedling emergence, plant establishment, subsequent development and growth of adult plants, and it is controlled by internal genetic factors and external environmental factors. Winter wheat in the southern Great Plains is often planted six weeks before the optimal planting date to produce...

The chlamydial periplasmic stress response serine protease cHtrA is secreted into host cell cytosol

Background The periplasmic High Temperature Requirement protein A (HtrA) plays important roles in bacterial protein folding and stress responses. However, the role of chlamydial HtrA (cHtrA) in chlamydial pathogenesis is not clear. Results The cHtrA was detected both inside and outside the chlamydial inclusions. The detection was specific since both polyclonal and monoclonal anti...