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First-line afatinib vs gefitinib for patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC (LUX-Lung 7): impact of afatinib dose adjustment and analysis of mode of initial progression for patients who continued treatment beyond progression

PurposeIn the randomized phase IIb LUX-Lung 7 trial, afatinib significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) and time-to-treatment failure vs gefitinib in patients with treatment-naïve epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer. We report post hoc analyses of tolerability-guided dose adjustment for afatinib and summarize the clinical...

Effects of forest conversion on soil microbial communities depend on soil layer on the eastern Tibetan Plateau of China

: Ruoyang He, Li Zhang. Writing ± original draft: Ruoyang He, Zhenfeng Xu. Writing ± review & editing: Martin SchaÈdler, Zhenfeng Xu. 11 / 13 14. 18. 12 / 13 1. Koranda M , Kaiser C , Fuchslueger L

Ophthalmoscopic Assessment of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer. The Beijing Eye Study

Purpose To examine the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) ophthalmoscopically, to search for localized RNFL defects, and to assess factors associated with RNFL visibility in a population-based setting. Methods The population-based cross-sectional Beijing Eye Study 2006 included 3251 subjects. Using color fundus photographs, RNFL visibility was assessed in grades from 0 to 8 in 8...

Transcriptional regulation of the human, porcine and bovine OCTN2 gene by PPAR? via a conserved PPRE located in intron 1

Background The novel organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2) is the physiologically most important carnitine transporter in tissues and is responsible for carnitine absorption in the intestine, carnitine reabsorption in the kidney and distribution of carnitine between tissues. Genetic studies clearly demonstrated that the mouse OCTN2 gene is directly regulated by peroxisome...

Bisbibenzyls, a New Type of Antifungal Agent, Inhibit Morphogenesis Switch and Biofilm Formation through Upregulation of DPP3 in Candida albicans

The yeast-to-hypha transition plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of C. albicans. Farnesol, a quorum sensing molecule (QSM) secreted by the fungal itself, could prevent the formation of hyphae and subsequently lead to the defect of biofilm formation. The DPP3, encoding phosphatase, is a key gene in regulating farnesol synthesis. In this study, we screened 24 bisbibenzyls and...

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in population-based studies: Systematic review

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a major public health problem worldwide. This article reviews the published evidence of prevalence of CKD in population-based study samples that used the standardized definition from the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative of the National Kidney Foundation (K/DOQI) practice guideline, and particularly focus on performance...

A coimmunization vaccine of Aβ42 ameliorates cognitive deficits without brain inflammation in an Alzheimer’s disease model

Introduction Vaccination against amyloid-β protein (Aβ42) induces high levels of antibody, making it a promising strategy for treating Alzheimer’s disease (AD). One drawback in the past was that clinical trial approval was withheld because of speculation that the Aβ42 vaccine induces CD4+ T cell infiltrations into the central nervous system. To reduce T-cell activation while...

Association of daily tar and nicotine intake with incident myocardial infarction: Results from the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg Cohort Study 1984 - 2002

Background Cigarette smoking has been shown to be one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about cumulative effects of daily tar and nicotine intake on the risk of incident myocardial infarction (MI) so far. To bridge this gap, we conducted an analysis in a large prospective study from Southern Germany investigating associations...

TRAP1 rescues PINK1 loss-of-function phenotypes

PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that is localized to mitochondria. It protects cells from oxidative stress by suppressing mitochondrial cytochrome c release, thereby preventing cell death. Mutations in Pink1 cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Consistently, mitochondrial function is impaired in Pink1-linked PD patients and model systems...

Binding between Crossveinless-2 and Chordin Von Willebrand Factor Type C Domains Promotes BMP Signaling by Blocking Chordin Activity

Background Crossveinless-2 (CV2) is an extracellular BMP modulator protein of the Chordin family, which can either enhance or inhibit BMP activity. CV2 binds to BMP2 via subdomain 1 of the first of its five N-terminal von Willebrand factor type C domains (VWC1). Previous studies showed that this BMP binding is required for the anti-, but not for the pro-BMP effect of CV2. More...