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Cyclopamine tartrate, an inhibitor of Hedgehog signaling, strongly interferes with mitochondrial function and suppresses aerobic respiration in lung cancer cells

Background Aberrant Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is associated with the development of many cancers including prostate cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, and basal cell carcinoma. The Hh signaling pathway has been one of the most intensely investigated targets for cancer therapy, and a number of compounds inhibiting Hh signaling are being...

High-mobility group protein box1 expression correlates with peritumoral macrophage infiltration and unfavorable prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis

Background High-mobility group protein box1 (HMGB1) is a pivotal factor in the development and progression of many types of tumor. Its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and especially its correlation with intratumoral and peritumoral macrophage infiltration, remains obscure. We analyzed the potential roles and prognostic value of HMGB1 and explored the correlation between...

Phase I/II dose-finding study of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab®-Paclitaxel) plus Cisplatin as Treatment for Metastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Background This phase I/II study aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab ® -paclitaxel) plus cisplatin as treatment for metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods Patients were enrolled into 1 of 3 dose cohorts, each with 21-day treatment cycles: 1) intravenous (IV) nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m 2 on day 1; 2) IV nab...

The important role of circulating CYFRA21-1 in metastasis diagnosis and prognostic value compared with carcinoembryonic antigen and neuron-specific enolase in lung cancer patients

Background The roles of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA21-1) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in metastases occurrence and poor diagnosis in specific histological classifications of lung cancer need further exploring. In this study, we investigated relationship between elevated levels of three biomarkers of CEA, CYFRA21-1 and NSE (individually and...

Improved false negative rate of axillary status using sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasound-suspicious lymph node sampling in patients with early breast cancer

Background The false negative rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is 5-10%, and results in improper patient management. The study was to assess the value of ultrasound-suspicious axillary lymph node biopsy (USALNB) in patients with early breast cancer, and to compare SLNB combined with USALNB (SLNB + USALNB) with SLNB alone. Methods From January 2010 to July 2013, 216...

Expression of EIF5A2 associates with poor survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with induction chemotherapy

Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a type of head-neck cancer with a distinguishable geographic and racial distribution worldwide. Increasing evidence supports that the accumulation of additional genetic and epigenetic abnormalities is important in driving the NPC tumorigenic process. In this study, we aim to investigate the association between EIF5A2 (Eukaryotic...

A rare case of watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria syndrome caused by pheochromocytoma

Background A rare syndrome of watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria (WDHA) is usually caused by pancreatic endocrine tumors that secrete excessive vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Here we report a rare case of WDHA caused by a pheochromocytoma. Case presentation A 45-year old male presented with persistent and progressive watery diarrhea for half a year, and was...

Polyploid giant cancer cells with budding and the expression of cyclin E, S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, stathmin associated with the grading and metastasis in serous ovarian tumor

Background We previously reported that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) exhibit cancer stem cell properties and express cell cycle-related proteins. HEY PGCCs induced by cobalt chloride generated daughter cells and the daughter cells had a strong migratory and invasive ability. This study is to compare the expression of cyclin E, S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2...

The survival and the long-term trends of patients with gastric cancer in Shanghai, China

Background Gastric cancer remains a major health issue and a leading cause of death worldwide. This study presented a long-term survival data of gastric cancer registered in Shanghai of China from 1972–2003, with aims to describe the trends as well as the age, sex, stage and tumor sites specific characteristics. Methods The main source of information on cancer cases was the...

Randomized phase III trial of amrubicin/cisplatin versus etoposide/cisplatin as first-line treatment for extensive small-cell lung cancer

Hao 1 Jie Wang 10 Chengping Hu 16 Baohui Han 15 Xiaoqing Liu 14 Li Zhang 13 Huiping Wan 18 Zhongjun Xia 17 Yunpeng Liu 12 Wei Li 8 Mei Hou 9 Helong Zhang 6 Qingyu Xiu 7 Yunzhong Zhu 4 Jifeng Feng 5

MiR-133b is frequently decreased in gastric cancer and its overexpression reduces the metastatic potential of gastric cancer cells

Background Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs are involved in gastric cancer development and progression. Here we examine the role of miR-133b in gastric cancer. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed in 140 patient gastric cancer tissues and 8 gastric cancer cell lines. The effects of miR-133b in gastric cancer cells metastasis were examined by scratch...

A novel engineered VEGF blocker with an excellent pharmacokinetic profile and robust anti-tumor activity

Background Relatively poor penetration and retention in tumor tissue has been documented for large molecule drugs including therapeutic antibodies and recombinant immunoglobulin constant region (Fc)-fusion proteins due to their large size, positive charge, and strong target binding affinity. Therefore, when designing a large molecular drug candidate, smaller size, neutral charge...

Overexpression of SIRT1 promotes metastasis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma

Background SIRT1 is a member of the mammalian sirtuin family with the ability to deacetylate histone and nonhistone proteins. The correlation between SIRT1 expression and tumor metastasis in several types of cancer has aroused widespread concern. This study investigated SIRT1 expression and its prognostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The function of SIRT1 in...

Radiation-induced temporal lobe injury after intensity modulated radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients: a dose-volume-outcome analysis

Li Zhang 0 Shao-Min Huang 0 Li-Zhi Liu Li Li Ai-Hua Lin Jun Ma 0 0 State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University

Meta-analysis of quantitative diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions

Background To determine, in a meta-analysis, the diagnostic performance of quantitative diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging in patients with breast lesions. Methods English and Chinese studies published prior to June 2009 to assess the diagnostic performance of quantitative DWI in patients with breast lesions were reviewed and summarized with reference to the inclusion and...

The direct effect of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), dominant-negative FAK, FAK-CD and FAK siRNA on gene expression and human MCF-7 breast cancer cell tumorigenesis

Background Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in survival signaling. FAK has been shown to be overexpressed in breast cancer tumors at early stages of tumorigenesis. Methods To study the direct effect of FAK on breast tumorigenesis, we developed Tet-ON (tetracycline-inducible) system of MCF-7 breast cancer cells stably...

The role of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma among endemic population: a meta-analysis of the phase iii randomized trials

Background The main objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the clinical benefit of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) compared with radiation alone (RT) in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients in endemic geographic areas. Methods Using a prospective meta-analysis protocol, two independent investigators reviewed the publications and extracted the...

Radiotherapy may improve overall survival of patients with T3/T4 transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis or ureter and delay bladder tumour relapse

Background Since transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the upper urinary tract is a relatively uncommon malignancy, the role of adjuvant radiotherapy is unknown. Methods We treated 133 patients with TCC of the renal pelvis or ureter at our institution between 1998 and 2008. The 67 patients who received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) following surgery were assigned to the...

The radiosensitizing effect of doranidazole on human colorectal cancer cells exposed to high doses of irradiation

Background This paper investigates the effects of a new radiosensitizer, doranidazole, and enhancing irradiation on colorectal cancer cells. Methods The radiosensitizing effect of doranidazole was determined using colony formation and propidium iodide (PI) assays to measure cell growth inhibition and the cell killing effect of human colorectal cancer cell lines exposed to high...

Down-regulation of SFRP1 as a putative tumor suppressor gene can contribute to human hepatocellular carcinoma

Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. SFRP1 (the secreted frizzled-related protein 1), a putative tumor suppressor gene mapped onto chromosome 8p12-p11.1, the frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) region in human HCC, encodes a Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling antagonist and is frequently inactivated by promoter methylation in many...