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Inflammation, Autoimmunity, and Hypertension: The Essential Role of Tissue Transglutaminase

Inflammatory cytokines cause hypertension when introduced into animals. Additional evidence indicates that cytokines induce the production of autoantibodies that activate the AT1 angiotensin receptor (AT1R). Extensive evidence shows that these autoantibodies, termed AT1-AA, contribute to hypertension. We review here recent studies showing that cytokine-induced hypertension and...

Sofosbuvir-based Interferon-Free Direct Acting Antiviral Regimens for Heart Transplant Recipients With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

We assessed the effectiveness and safety of sofosbuvir (SOF) combined with ledipasvir (LDV) or daclatasvir (DCV) in 12 heart transplant recipients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). The sustained virologic response (SVR12) rate was 100% [95% confidence interval [CI]: 75.8%–100%]. All patients tolerated treatment well without interruption, death, or serious adverse events.

Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation in Patients Receiving Interferon-Free Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

Little is known about the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients receiving interferon (IFN)-free direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV).

Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation in Patients Receiving Interferon-Free Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

Little is known about the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients receiving interferon (IFN)-free direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV).

Gold Nanoparticles Increase Endothelial Paracellular Permeability by Altering Components of Endothelial Tight Junctions, and Increase Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability in Mice

Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) are being increasingly used as constituents in cosmetics, biosensors, bioimaging, photothermal therapy, and targeted drug delivery. This elevated exposure to Au-NPs poses systemic risks in humans, particularly risks associated with the biodistribution of Au-NPs and their potent interaction with biological barriers. We treated human umbilical vein...

Hepatocyte Paraffin 1 Antigen as a Biomarker for Early Diagnosis of Barrett Esophagus

We evaluated hepatocyte paraffin 1 (HepPar1) antigen expression, a sensitive marker of small intestinal differentiation, in combination with morphologic features to demonstrate intestinal differentiation in cases equivocal for Barrett esophagus (BE). Clinicopathologic features and HepPar1 expression were recorded for 54 BE cases, 45 consistent with reflux esophagitis (RE) cases...

Loss of Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase I in Small-Intestinal Adenocarcinoma

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (CPS1), normally found in hepatocytes and small-intestine (SI) enterocytes, is the antigen of Hep Par 1 antibody. Expression of CPS1 in invasive SI adenocarcinoma seems to be lost. We retrospectively collected 36 total specimens, which included 31 SI adenomas and 21 adenocarcinomas. We used 34 cases of duodenitis as a control group...

Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles–Induced Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Expression Requires Rac1/Cdc42, Mixed Lineage Kinase 3, and c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Activation in Endothelial Cells

The explosive development of nanotechnology has caused an increase in unintended biohazards in humans and in the ecosystem. Similar to particulate matter, nanoparticles (NPs) are strongly correlated with the increase in incidences of cardiovascular diseases, yet the mechanisms behind this correlation remain unclear. Within the testing concentrations of 0.1–10 μg/ml, which did not...

Association of hepatitis C virus infection and malnutrition–inflammation complex syndrome in maintenance hemodialysis patients

Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) have a significantly higher prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and malnutrition–inflammation complex syndrome (MICS). In the present study of Taiwanese MHD patients, we determined the clinical characteristics and influence of HCV infection on MICS by calculation of the malnutrition–inflammation score (MIS).

Short-hairpin RNAs delivered by lentiviral vector transduction trigger RIG-I-mediated IFN activation

Activation of the type I interferon (IFN) pathway by small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a major contributor to the off-target effects of RNA interference in mammalian cells. While IFN induction complicates gene function studies, immunostimulation by siRNAs may be beneficial in certain therapeutic settings. Various forms of siRNA, meeting different compositional and structural...

A Large-scale genetic association study of esophageal adenocarcinoma risk

The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) has been increasing rapidly, particularly among white males, over the past few decades in the USA. However, the etiology of EA and the striking male predominance is not fully explained by known risk factors. To identify susceptible genes for EA risk, we conducted a pathway-based candidate gene association study on 335 Caucasian EA...

Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2a Monotherapy for Hemodialysis Patients with Acute Hepatitis C

Background. Hemodialysis patients are at risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, little is known about the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon (IFN) therapy for hemodialysis patients with acute hepatitis C.

Genetic associations with sporadic neuroendocrine tumor risk

Genetic risk factors for sporadic neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are poorly understood. We tested risk associations in patients with sporadic NET and non-cancer controls, using a custom array containing 1536 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 355 candidate genes. We identified 18 SNPs associated with NET risk at a P -value <0.01 in a discovery set of 261 cases and 319...

Pegylated Interferon-α-2a plus Ribavirin for Treatment-Naive Asian Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection: A Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial

Background. Comparable sustained virologic response (SVR) rates have been documented between Asian patients who received 24 weeks of pegylated interferon (IFN) plus ribavirin and white patients who received 48 weeks of combination therapy for hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCV-1) infection. Whether a 48-week course of combination therapy shows a better SVR rate than a 24-week...

Inhibition of Neovascularization to Simultaneously Ameliorate Graft-vs-Host Disease and Decrease Tumor Growth

Blood vessels are formed either by sprouting of resident tissue endothelial cells (angiogenesis) or by recruitment of bone marrow (BM)–derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, vasculogenesis). Neovascularization has been implicated in tumor growth and inflammation, but its roles in graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) and in tumors after allogeneic BM transplantation (allo...