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44 papers found.
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Access to care in the Baltic States: did crisis have an impact?

Background : In 2009, brief but deep economic crisis profoundly affected the three Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. In response, all three countries adopted severe austerity measures with the shared goal of containing rising deficits, but employing different methods. Aims : In this article, we analyze the impact of the economic crisis and post-crisis austerity...

Effectiveness of interventions to improve lifestyle behaviors among socially disadvantaged children in Europe

Background: Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and childhood overweight are more common among children from families with a low socioeconomic position and ethnic minority children (referred to as social disadvantaged children). Aims: This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of interventions aimed to improve lifestyle behaviours and/or prevent overweight among socially...

The role of three lifestyle risk factors in reducing educational differences in ischaemic heart disease mortality in Europe

Background: Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide with a higher risk of dying among people with a lower socioeconomic status. We investigated the potential for reducing educational differences in IHD mortality in 21 European populations based on two counterfactual scenarios—the upward levelling scenario and the more realistic best practice...

A comparative analysis of health policy performance in 43 European countries

Background: It is unknown whether European countries differ systematically in their pursuit of health policies, and what the determinants of these differences are. In this article, we assess the extent to which European countries vary in the implementation of health policies in 10 different areas, and we exploit these variations to investigate the role of political, economic and...

Obesity and the potential reduction of social inequalities in mortality: evidence from 21 European populations

Background: Obesity contributes considerably to the problem of health inequalities in many countries, but quantitative estimates of this contribution and to what extent it is modifiable are scarce. We identify the potential for reducing educational inequalities in all-cause and obesity-related mortality in 21 European populations, by modifying educational differences in obesity...

The population and high-risk approaches to prevention: quantitative estimates of their contribution to population health in the Netherlands, 1970–2010

Background: To compare the contribution of ‘population’ and ‘high-risk’ approaches to prevention, with regard to their impact on population health in the Netherlands between 1970 and 2010. Methods: Preventive interventions that have had an impact on mortality and morbidity rates were identified using published evaluation studies and routinely collected mortality and morbidity...

Educational inequalities in leisure-time physical activity in 15 European countries

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the patterns of socio-economic inequalities in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in the different member states of the European Union. Methods: Comparable data on subjects aged 16–64 years derived from national health interview surveys from 15 European countries were used for the analysis. We used log-binominal regression to...

Small socio-economic differences in mortality in Spanish older people

Background: Previous studies found smaller mortality inequalities in Southern Europe than in other European populations. This study used a sample of older Spanish adults to identify possible factors explaining these findings. Methods: A cohort of 4008 persons aged ≥60 years was selected in 2000–01 and followed prospectively until 2008. At baseline, data were collected on...

Why some walk and others don't: exploring interactions of perceived safety and social neighborhood factors with psychosocial cognitions

Although physical activity is often believed to be influenced by both environmental and individual factors, little is known about their interaction. This study explores interactions of perceived safety and social neighborhood factors with psychosocial cognitions for leisure-time walking. Cross-sectional data were obtained from residents (age 25–75 years) of 212 neighborhoods in...

Explaining socio-demographic differences in disengagement from sports in adolescence

Purpose: The purpose of this longitudinal study is to identify risk groups for disengagement from sports during adolescence. In addition, it will be explored whether cognitive and environmental factors can explain socio-demographic differences in disengagement from sports. Methods: Data were obtained from the Environmental Determinants of Obesity in Rotterdam Schoolchildren study...

Explaining socio-economic inequalities in daily smoking: a social–ecological approach

Background: This study assessed the contributions of individual, household and neighbourhood-level factors to socio-economic inequalities in smoking. Methods: Data came from 2706 participants of the 2004 wave of the Dutch GLOBE study. Participants were asked about several social and material characteristics of their households, neighbourhoods and smoking in their environment...