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Effects of the levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine device, copper intrauterine device, and levonorgestrel-containing oral contraceptive on susceptibility of immune cells from cervix, endometrium and blood to HIV-1 fusion measured ex vivo

like to thank all study participants. Author Contributions McCune. Karen Smith-McCune. Conceptualization: Marielle Cavrois, Joan F. Hilton, Nadia R. Roan, Dominika Seidman, Sarah Averbach, Ruth ... Greenblatt, Barbara L. Shacklett, Karen Smith-McCune. Data curation: Marielle Cavrois, Joan F. Hilton, Karen Smith-McCune. Formal analysis: Marielle Cavrois, Joan F. Hilton, Barbara L. Shacklett, Karen

The Achilles Heel of the Trojan Horse Model of HIV-1 trans-Infection

To ensure their survival, microbial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to subvert host immune defenses. The human retrovirus HIV-1 has been proposed to hijack the natural endocytic function of dendritic cells (DCs) to infect interacting CD4 T cells in a process termed trans-infection. Although DCs can be directly infected by certain strains of HIV-1, productive infection...

In Vitro Derived Dendritic Cells trans-Infect CD4 T Cells Primarily with Surface-Bound HIV-1 Virions

In the prevailing model of HIV-1 trans-infection, dendritic cells (DCs) capture and internalize intact virions and transfer these virions to interacting T cells at the virological synapse. Here, we show that HIV-1 virions transmitted in trans from in vitro derived DCs to T cells principally originate from the surface of DCs. Selective neutralization of surface-bound virions...

Common Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) Integration Sites in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood Lymphocytes of Patients with HTLV-1—Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis Indicate that HTLV-1 Crosses the Blood-Brain Barrier via Clonal HTLV-1—Infected Cells

In the spinal cord of patients with human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)—associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), infiltrating CD4+ lymphocytes seem to be the major reservoir for the virus. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms by which HTLV-1 crosses the blood-brain barrier. An oligoclonal proliferation of HTLV-1—infected CD4 lymphoid T cells...

Persistent oligoclonal expansion of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-infected circulating cells in patients with Tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy

The pattern of HTLV-1 replication was assessed through PCR amplification of the 3′ proviral integration sites in patients with TSP/HAM at different times. Integration sites were sequenced and oligonucleotides specific for the flanking sequences were synthesized. Together with HTLV-1 LTR specific primers, clonotypic nested PCR was performed on peripheral blood from two patients...