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Chronic Kidney Disease Increases Cerebral Microbleeds in Mouse and Man

Brain microbleeds are increased in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their presence increases risk of cognitive decline and stroke. We examined the interaction between CKD and brain microhemorrhages (the neuropathological substrate of microbleeds) in mouse and cell culture models and studied progression of microbleed burden on serial brain imaging from humans. Mouse studies: Two...

REST Sampling: Landmine Detection Using a Fido Device

and interesting developments to the mine action community. These tools could very well put greater technology in the field alongside conventional detection techniques. by Mark Fisher, John Sikes and Kip

Cost-Effectiveness of Betrixaban Compared with Enoxaparin for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Nonsurgical Patients with Acute Medical Illness in the United States

BackgroundStudies show that the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) continues post-discharge in nonsurgical patients with acute medical illness. Betrixaban is the first anticoagulant approved in the United States (US) for VTE prophylaxis extending beyond hospitalization.ObjectiveThe aim was to establish whether betrixaban for VTE prophylaxis in nonsurgical patients with acute...

Trapping of the transport-segment DNA by the ATPase domains of a type II topoisomerase

. SandersonMolecular and Clinical Sciences Research Institute, St. George’s, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0RE, UKIvan Laponogov, Xiao-Su Pan & L. Mark Fisher AuthorsSearch for Ivan Laponogov ... ., L.M.F. and M.R.S. Competing interests The authors declare no competing interests. Corresponding authors Correspondence to L. Mark Fisher or Mark R. Sanderson. Electronic supplementary material

The Cerebrovascular-Chronic Kidney Disease Connection: Perspectives and Mechanisms

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for the development of cerebrovascular disease, particularly small vessel disease which can manifest in a variety of phenotypes ranging from lacunes to microbleeds. Small vessel disease likely contributes to cognitive dysfunction in the CKD population. Non-traditional risk factors for vascular injury in uremia include...

A murine model of inflammation-induced cerebral microbleeds

Background Cerebral microhemorrhages (CMH) are tiny deposits of blood degradation products in the brain and are pathological substrates of cerebral microbleeds. The existing CMH animal models are β-amyloid-, hypoxic brain injury-, or hypertension-induced. Recent evidence shows that CMH develop independently of hypoxic brain injury, hypertension, or amyloid deposition and CMH are...

Functional determinants of gate-DNA selection and cleavage by bacterial type II topoisomerases

Antibacterial fluoroquinolones trap a cleavage complex of gyrase and topoisomerase (topo) IV inducing site-specific DNA breakage within a bent DNA gate engaged in DNA transport. Despite its importance for drug action and in revealing potential sites of topoisomerase catalysis, the mechanism of DNA selectivity is poorly understood. To explore its functional basis, we generated...

Mixed Cerebrovascular Disease and the Future of Stroke Prevention

Stroke prevention efforts typically focus on either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. This approach is overly simplistic due to the frequent coexistence of ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease. This coexistence, termed “mixed cerebrovascular disease”, offers a conceptual framework that appears useful for stroke prevention strategies. Mixed cerebrovascular disease...

Structure of an ‘open’ clamp type II topoisomerase-DNA complex provides a mechanism for DNA capture and transport

Type II topoisomerases regulate DNA supercoiling and chromosome segregation. They act as ATP-operated clamps that capture a DNA duplex and pass it through a transient DNA break in a second DNA segment via the sequential opening and closure of ATPase-, G-DNA- and C-gates. Here, we present the first ‘open clamp’ structures of a 3-gate topoisomerase II-DNA complex, the seminal...

A Novel Human-Infection-Derived Bacterium Provides Insights into the Evolutionary Origins of Mutualistic Insect–Bacterial Symbioses

Despite extensive study, little is known about the origins of the mutualistic bacterial endosymbionts that inhabit approximately 10% of the world's insects. In this study, we characterized a novel opportunistic human pathogen, designated “strain HS,” and found that it is a close relative of the insect endosymbiont Sodalis glossinidius. Our results indicate that ancestral...

Clerocidin selectively modifies the gyrase-DNA gate to induce irreversible and reversible DNA damage

Clerocidin (CL), a microbial diterpenoid, reacts with DNA via its epoxide group and stimulates DNA cleavage by type II DNA topoisomerases. The molecular basis of CL action is poorly understood. We establish by genetic means that CL targets DNA gyrase in the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, and promotes gyrase-dependent single- and double-stranded DNA cleavage in...

Structural Basis of Gate-DNA Breakage and Resealing by Type II Topoisomerases

Type II DNA topoisomerases are ubiquitous enzymes with essential functions in DNA replication, recombination and transcription. They change DNA topology by forming a transient covalent cleavage complex with a gate-DNA duplex that allows transport of a second duplex though the gate. Despite its biological importance and targeting by anticancer and antibacterial drugs, cleavage...

The Difficult Case of Crystallization and Structure Solution for the ParC55 Breakage-Reunion Domain of Topoisomerase IV from Streptococcus pneumoniae

Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of community-acquired pneumonia and is also associated with bronchitis, meningitis, otitis and sinusitis. The emergence and increasing prevalence of resistance to penicillin and other antibiotics has led to interest in other anti-pneumonococcal drugs such as quinolones that target the enzymes DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV...

Clerocidin interacts with the cleavage complex of Streptococcus pneumoniae topoisomerase IV to induce selective irreversible DNA damage

Clerocidin (CL), a diterpenoid natural product, alkylates DNA through its epoxide moiety and exhibits both anticancer and antibacterial activities. We have examined CL action in the presence of topoisomerase IV from Streptococcus pneumoniae. CL promoted irreversible enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage leading to single- and double-stranded DNA breaks at specific sites. Reaction required...

Hot-spot consensus of fluoroquinolone-mediated DNA cleavage by Gram-negative and Gram-positive type II DNA topoisomerases

Bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV are selective targets of fluoroquinolones. Topoisomerase IV versus gyrase and Gram-positive versus Gram-negative behavior was studied based on the different recognition of DNA sequences by topoisomerase–quinolone complexes. A careful statistical analysis of preferred bases was performed on a large number (>400) of cleavage sites. We found...

Breakage-Reunion Domain of Streptococcus pneumoniae Topoisomerase IV: Crystal Structure of a Gram-Positive Quinolone Target

The 2.7 Å crystal structure of the 55-kDa N-terminal breakage-reunion domain of topoisomerase (topo) IV subunit A (ParC) from Streptococcus pneumoniae, the first for the quinolone targets from a gram-positive bacterium, has been solved and reveals a ‘closed’ dimer similar in fold to Escherichia coli DNA gyrase subunit A (GyrA), but distinct from the ‘open’ gate structure of...