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Intra-rater reliability of determining positions of cervical spinous processes and measuring their relative distances

ObjectivesA reliable detection of bony landmarks of the spine is necessary in order to determine rigid bodies and to reduce the variability of marker placement in a movement laboratory setting. In a first study on the thoracic and lumbar spine, we demonstrated that placing markers on their relative positions between two major landmarks was superior to palpation of specific bony...

Intra-rater reliability of determining positions of cervical spinous processes and measuring their relative distances

A reliable detection of bony landmarks of the spine is necessary in order to determine rigid bodies and to reduce the variability of marker placement in a movement laboratory setting. In a first study on the thoracic and lumbar spine, we demonstrated that placing markers on their relative positions between two major landmarks was superior to palpation of specific bony landmarks...

Determination of thoracic and lumbar spinal processes by their percentage position between C7 and the PSIS level

Background Accurate measurements of spinal movement require reliable determination of anatomical landmarks. Current methods of identifying these are not sufficiently reliable or valid for this purpose. A reliable and convenient method of placing markers on selected vertebra is needed to compare measurements between different testers, subjects and sessions. Findings Two testers...

Determination of thoracic and lumbar spinal processes by their percentage position between C7 and the PSIS level

placement reliable, comparable and feasible. Nevertheless the accuracy of the manual palpation method used has to be confirmed subsequently by image-guided procedures. Notes Markus J Ernst, Fabian M Rast