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Search: authors:"Meintjes, Graeme"

31 papers found.
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Concentration-Dependent Antagonism and Culture Conversion in Pulmonary Tuberculosis

There is scant evidence to support target drug exposures for optimal tuberculosis outcomes. We therefore assessed whether pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters could predict 2-month culture conversion.

Acute Kidney Injury and Urinary Biomarkers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis

Cryptococcus is the most common etiology of adult meningitis in Africa. Amphotericin B deoxycholate remains paramount to treatment, despite toxicities, including acute kidney injury (AKI). We assessed the ability of the following urine markers to predict AKI in patients who received amphotericin B: urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin C (CysC), tissue...

Matrix Degradation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–Associated Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: A Prospective Observational Study

Extensive immunopathology occurs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) coinfection, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well-defined. Excessive matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity is emerging as a key process but has not been systematically studied in HIV-associated TB.

AIDS-Related Endemic Mycoses in Western Cape, South Africa, and Clinical Mimics: A Cross-Sectional Study of Adults With Advanced HIV and Recent-Onset, Widespread Skin Lesions

Skin lesions are common in advanced HIV infection and are sometimes caused by serious diseases like systemic mycoses (SM). AIDS-related SM endemic to Western Cape, South Africa, include emergomycosis (formerly disseminated emmonsiosis), histoplasmosis, and sporotrichosis. We previously reported that 95% of patients with AIDS-related emergomycosis had skin lesions, although these...

Anemia, Blood Transfusion Requirements and Mortality Risk in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults Requiring Acute Medical Admission to Hospital in South Africa

Background. Morbidity and mortality remain high among hospitalized patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa despite widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy. Severe anemia is likely one important driver, and some evidence suggests that blood transfusions may accelerate HIV progression and paradoxically increase short-term mortality...

Anemia, Blood Transfusion Requirements and Mortality Risk in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults Requiring Acute Medical Admission to Hospital in South Africa

Background. Morbidity and mortality remain high among hospitalized patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa despite widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy. Severe anemia is likely one important driver, and some evidence suggests that blood transfusions may accelerate HIV progression and paradoxically increase short-term mortality...

Managing Advanced HIV Disease in a Public Health Approach

In 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) published guidelines for the management of advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease within a public health approach. Recent data suggest that more than a third of people starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) do so with advanced HIV disease, and an increasing number of patients re-present to care at an advanced stage of HIV...

Cryptococcal Antigen Screening in Patients Initiating ART in South Africa: A Prospective Cohort Study

Background. Retrospective data suggest that cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening in patients with late-stage human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) may reduce cryptococcal disease and deaths. Prospective data are limited.

Neutrophil-Associated Central Nervous System Inflammation in Tuberculous Meningitis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

Background. The immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) remains incompletely understood, and we know of only 1 disease site-specific study of the underlying immunology; we recently showed that Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture positivity and increased neutrophils in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with...

Cerebrospinal Fluid Culture Positivity and Clinical Outcomes After Amphotericin-Based Induction Therapy for Cryptococcal Meningitis

Background. Amphotericin-based combination antifungal therapy reduces mortality from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cryptococcal meningitis. However, 40%–50% of individuals have positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fungal cultures at completion of 2 weeks of amphotericin induction therapy. Residual CSF culture positivity has historically been associated with poor...