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Electroacupuncture Inhibits the Activation of p38MAPK in the Central Descending Facilitatory Pathway in Rats with Inflammatory Pain

, USA Correspondence should be addressed to Ming-Xing Ding; nc.ude.uazh.liam@xmd Received 6 July 2017; Revised 15 September 2017; Accepted 1 November 2017; Published 22 November 2017 Academic Editor

Electroacupuncture Inhibits the Activation of p38MAPK in the Central Descending Facilitatory Pathway in Rats with Inflammatory Pain

, USA Correspondence should be addressed to Ming-Xing Ding; nc.ude.uazh.liam@xmd Received 6 July 2017; Revised 15 September 2017; Accepted 1 November 2017; Published 22 November 2017 Academic Editor

A novel model for studying ileitis-induced visceral hypersensitivity in goats

Background Visceral hypersensitivity (VH) is a common condition in many gastrointestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in human and animals. Most studies often induce Crohn’s disease/colitis to investigate VH in small experimental animals. Although farm animals commonly suffer from IBDs, their VH has not been investigated so far. Because goats can suffer...

The Expression Patterns of c-Fos and c-Jun Induced by Different Frequencies of Electroacupuncture in the Brain

To investigate patterns of c-Fos and c-Jun expression induced by different frequencies of electroacupuncture (EA) in the brain, goats were stimulated by EA of 0, 2, 60, or 100 Hz at a set of “Baihui, Santai, Ergen, and Sanyangluo” points for 30 min. The pain threshold was measured using the potassium iontophoresis method. The levels of c-Fos and c-Jun were determined with...

Effects of Electroacupuncture of Different Frequencies on the Release Profile of Endogenous Opioid Peptides in the Central Nerve System of Goats

To investigate the release profile of met-enkephalin, β-endorphin, and dynorphin-A in ruminants’ CNS, goats were stimulated by electroacupuncture of 0, 2, 40, 60, 80, or 100 Hz for 30 min. The pain threshold was measured using potassium iontophoresis. The peptide levels were determined with SABC immunohistochemisty. The results showed that 60 Hz increased pain threshold by 91...

Electroacupuncture-Induced Dynamic Processes of Gene Expression Levels of Endogenous Opioid Peptide Precursors and Opioid Receptors in the CNS of Goats

In order to investigate the dynamic processes of mRNA levels of proenkephalin, proopiomelanocortin, prodynorphin, and opioid receptors (-, -, and -receptor) induced by electroacupuncture (EA) in the central nerve system, goats were stimulated by EA of 60 Hz for 0.5 h at a set of Baihui, Santai, Ergen, and Sanyangluo points. The pain threshold was measured using the method of...

Electroacupuncture-Induced Dynamic Processes of Gene Expression Levels of Endogenous Opioid Peptide Precursors and Opioid Receptors in the CNS of Goats

In order to investigate the dynamic processes of mRNA levels of proenkephalin, proopiomelanocortin, prodynorphin, and opioid receptors (-, -, and -receptor) induced by electroacupuncture (EA) in the central nerve system, goats were stimulated by EA of 60 Hz for 0.5 h at a set of Baihui, Santai, Ergen, and Sanyangluo points. The pain threshold was measured using the method of...