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58 papers found.
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Adiposity and grip strength as long-term predictors of objectively measured physical activity in 93 015 adults: the UK Biobank study

Background/Objectives:Fatness and fitness are associated with physical activity (PA) but less is known about the prospective associations of adiposity and muscle strength with PA. This study aimed to determine longitudinal associations of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and grip strength (GS) with objectively measured PA.Subjects/Methods:Data are from the UK...

The Dutch SCORE-based risk charts seriously underestimate the risk of cardiovascular disease

Introduction Dutch cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines recommend the use of modified SCORE risk charts to estimate 10-year risk of fatal and nonfatal CVD (myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease and congestive heart failure). This combined risk is derived from the SCORE mortality risk using multipliers. These multipliers have been shown to underestimate...

Validity of visceral adiposity estimates from DXA against MRI in Kuwaiti men and women

Objectives:The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the Middle East is among the highest in the world. Valid measures of abdominal adiposity are essential to understanding the metabolic consequences of obesity. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is increasingly being utilised to assess body composition in population studies, and has recently been used to estimate visceral...

Cross-sectional associations between different measures of obesity and muscle strength in men and women in a British cohort study

Objectives The relationship between obesity and grip strength, a key indicator of sarcopenia, has been inconsistently reported. We aimed to examine associations between grip strength and both body mass index (BMI), a clinical indicator of total adiposity, and waist circumference (WC), an indicator of central adiposity. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and Participants Data...

Modification of genetic influences on adiposity between 36 and 63 years of age by physical activity and smoking in the 1946 British Birth Cohort Study

Background:Previous studies reporting on the interaction between physical activity and genetic susceptibility on obesity have been cross-sectional and have not considered the potential influences of other lifestyle behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine modification of genetic influences on changes across age in adiposity during mid-adulthood by physical activity and...

Risk scores for predicting type 2 diabetes: comparing axes and spades

N. J. Wareham S. J. Griffin Abbreviations DETECT- - Evaluation of Screening and Early Detection Strategies for Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance Receiver operating characteristic A

Physical activity, sedentary time and gain in overall and central body fat: 7-year follow-up of the ProActive trial cohort

Objective:The objective of this study is to examine the independent associations of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary (SED-time), with total and abdominal body fat (BF), and the bidirectionality of these associations in adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes.Design and subjects:We measured MVPA (min per day) and SED-time (h per day) by...

Change in HbA1c over 3 years does not improve the prediction of cardiovascular disease over and above HbA1c measured at a single time point

Aims/hypothesisHbA1c is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), with 1% higher HbA1c levels associated with a 10–20% increased risk of CVD. Little is known about the association between change in HbA1c over time and cardiovascular risk in non-diabetic populations. This study examined the association between change in HbA1c over time and cardiovascular risk in a...

Relationship between plasma fibrinogen and fiber intake in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort

Background/Objectives:Fiber-rich diets have been proposed to lower circulating levels of inflammatory makers. Our objective was to investigate cross-sectional relationships between fiber intake and plasma fibrinogen.Subjects/Methods:We examined the relationship between plasma fibrinogen and dietary fiber in 20 960 men and women, aged 45–75 years old, living in Norfolk, UK. Fiber...

How much does screening bring forward the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and reduce complications? Twelve year follow-up of the Ely cohort

Aims There are continuing uncertainties about how much screening for type 2 diabetes brings forward the clinical diagnosis and the impact that earlier diagnosis has on health outcomes. We compared the duration of diabetes and health outcomes in a population invited for diabetes screening at 5-yearly intervals from 1990 (screened population) with those in a similar population not...

Rate of weight gain predicts change in physical activity levels: a longitudinal analysis of the EPIC-Norfolk cohort

Objective:To investigate the relationship of body weight and its changes over time with physical activity (PA).Design:Population-based prospective cohort study (Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, EPIC-Norfolk, United Kingdom).Subjects:A total of 25 639 men and women aged 39–79 years at baseline. PA was self-reported. Weight and...

No evidence of an increased mortality risk associated with low levels of glycated haemoglobin in a non-diabetic UK population

Aims/hypothesisThere is debate about increased mortality risk associated with low levels of glycaemia. To address this issue, we examined the shape of the risk relationship between glycated haemoglobin and mortality in a UK population.MethodsIn 17,196 men and women aged 39–82 years participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study in...

Non-diabetic hyperglycaemia and cardiovascular risk: moving beyond categorisation to individual interpretation of absolute risk

Aims/hypothesis Non-diabetic hyperglycaemia is usually not considered at all or is viewed as a binary risk category in isolation from other factors when quantifying cardiovascular risk. We argue that hyperglycaemia should be considered as a continuous risk factor and only in the context of other vascular risk factors. To examine the potential impact of hyperglycaemia on...

Individual and cumulative effect of type 2 diabetes genetic susceptibility variants on risk of coronary heart disease

Aims/hypothesis Type 2 diabetes is a major risk factor for CHD. We hypothesised that diabetes genetic susceptibility variants might be associated with increased CHD risk. Methods We examined the individual and cumulative effect of 38 common genetic variants previously reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes on risk of incident CHD in 20,467 participants of the European...

Fibre intake in relation to serum total cholesterol levels and CHD risk: a comparison of dietary assessment methods

Background/Objectives:Prospective diet diaries may be more accurate than retrospective food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). The objective of this study was to compare FFQ and 7-day diet diary (7DD) measurements of fibre intake with the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD).Subjects/Methods:We compared 7DD and FFQ fibre intake in a nested case–control study in a population of...

Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and the risk of type 2 diabetes: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort and updated meta-analysis of prospective studies

N. G. Forouhi Z. Ye A. P. Rickard K. T. Khaw R. Luben C. Langenberg N. J. Wareham Aims/hypothesis Epidemiological evidence is suggestive, but limited, for an association between circulating

Correlation of the leptin:adiponectin ratio with measures of insulin resistance in non-diabetic individuals

RISC Study has been provided by AstraZeneca (Sweden). The EGIR Group is supported by Merck Sant (France). F. M. Finucane, J. Luan, N. J. Wareham and S. J. Sharp are funded by the Medical Research

The association of intensity and overall level of physical activity energy expenditure with a marker of insulin resistance

F. K. Assah S. Brage U. Ekelund N. J. Wareham Aims/hypothesis Physical activity is important in preventing insulin resistance, but it is unclear which dimension of activity confers this benefit. We

Effects of body size and sociodemographic characteristics on differences between self-reported and measured anthropometric data in middle-aged men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk study

Background/Objectives:To investigate the effects of body size and sociodemographic characteristics on differences between self-reported (SR) and measured anthropometric data in men and women.Subjects/Methods:This study comprises 9933 men and 11 856 women aged 39–79 years at baseline survey (1993–1997) in the EPIC-Norfolk study (Norfolk arm of the European Investigation into...

Cardiovascular risk assessment scores for people with diabetes: a systematic review

P. Chamnan R. K. Simmons S. J. Sharp S. J. Griffin N. J. Wareham 0 ) MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital , Box 285, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK