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From John Snow to omics: the long journey of environmental epidemiology

for Genomic Medicine , Turin , Italy 1 & Paolo Vineis A major difference between infectious and non-communicable diseases is that infectious diseases typically have unique necessary causes whereas

DNA methylation and associated gene expression in blood prior to lung cancer diagnosis in the Norwegian Women and Cancer cohort

The majority of lung cancer is caused by tobacco smoking, and lung cancer-relevant epigenetic markers have been identified in relation to smoking exposure. Still, smoking-related markers appear to mediate little of the effect of smoking on lung cancer. Thus in order to identify disease-relevant markers and enhance our understanding of pathways, a wide search is warranted. Through...

Epigenome-wide association study for lifetime estrogen exposure identifies an epigenetic signature associated with breast cancer risk

BackgroundIt is well established that estrogens and other hormonal factors influence breast cancer susceptibility. We hypothesized that a woman’s total lifetime estrogen exposure accumulates changes in DNA methylation, detectable in the blood, which could be used in risk assessment for breast cancer.MethodsAn estimated lifetime estrogen exposure (ELEE) model was defined using...

Causality in cancer research: a journey through models in molecular epidemiology and their philosophical interpretation

-210176796] to Paolo Vineis, and partially supported by the Arts and Humanities Research Council via grant AH/M005917/1 to Phyllis Illari and Federica Russo. The authors thank Christopher Wild for comments on

Allostatic load and subsequent all-cause mortality: which biological markers drive the relationship? Findings from a UK birth cohort

The concept of allostatic load (AL) refers to the idea of a global physiological ‘wear and tear’ resulting from the adaptation to the environment through the stress response systems over the life span. The link between socioeconomic position (SEP) and mortality has now been established, and there is evidence that AL may capture the link between SEP and mortality. In order to...

Association between low-grade inflammation and Breast cancer and B-cell Myeloma and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: findings from two prospective cohorts

Search for Paolo Vineis in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google Scholar Search for Marc Chadeau-Hyam in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google Scholar Search for Roel Vermeulen in:Nature

Identifying and correcting epigenetics measurements for systematic sources of variation

Methylation measures quantified by microarray techniques can be affected by systematic variation due to the technical processing of samples, which may compromise the accuracy of the measurement process and contribute to bias the estimate of the association under investigation. The quantification of the contribution of the systematic source of variation is challenging in datasets...

Long-Term Realism and Cost-Effectiveness: Primary Prevention in Combatting Cancer and Associated Inequalities Worldwide

The global figure of 14 million new cancer cases in 2012 is projected to rise to almost 22 million by 2030, with the burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) shifting from 59% to 65% of all cancer cases worldwide over this time. While the overheads of cancer care are set to rapidly increase in all countries worldwide irrespective of income, the limited resources to...

A systematic comparison of statistical methods to detect interactions in exposome-health associations

There is growing interest in examining the simultaneous effects of multiple exposures and, more generally, the effects of mixtures of exposures, as part of the exposome concept (being defined as the totality of human environmental exposures from conception onwards). Uncovering such combined effects is challenging owing to the large number of exposures, several of them being...

Socioeconomic indicators in epidemiologic research: A practical example from the LIFEPATH study

. Requests should be sent to the PI of the LIFEPATH Project, Paolo Vineis (e-mail . uk). Funding: This study is supported by the European Commission (Horizon 2020 grant nÊ 633666) and Background Several ... , Ragusa, Italy), Paolo Vineis (MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London UK), Peter Vollenweider

Genome-wide association studies may be misinterpreted: genes versus heritability

Much of the literature on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is based on the premise that an important proportion of common diseases is heritable and that this proportion is likely to be due to genetic variants detectable with extensive scans of the DNA. Heritability is estimated from family studies, including twin studies and is based on the comparison of the variation in...

Reliability of Serum Metabolites over a Two-Year Period: A Targeted Metabolomic Approach in Fasting and Non-Fasting Samples from EPIC

Objective Although metabolic profiles have been associated with chronic disease risk, lack of temporal stability of metabolite levels could limit their use in epidemiological investigations. The present study aims to evaluate the reliability over a two-year period of 158 metabolites and compare reliability over time in fasting and non-fasting serum samples. Methods Metabolites...

Climate change and the diversity of its health effects

Paolo Vineis 0 1 0 P. Vineis (&) Imperial College London , London, UK 1 Paolo Vineis is Chair of Environmental Epidemiology at Imperial College, London . His main interests are in the field of

Environment and cancer: the legacy of Lorenzo Tomatis

As an introduction to the series of papers arising from the first ‘Lorenzo Tomatis Conference on Environment and Cancer’ , Tomatis’ contributions to research in cancer prevention are first noted, especially the ongoing programme ‘IARC Monographs on Carcinogenic Risk for humans’ that he established at the International Agency for Research on Cancer’ , of which he was the Director...

Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology

Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The...

MicroRNA expression in relation to different dietary habits: a comparison in stool and plasma samples

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, are fundamental for the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Altered expression of miRNAs has been detected in cancers, not only in primary tissue but also in easily obtainable specimens like plasma and stools. miRNA expression is known to be modulated by diet (micro and macronutrients, phytochemicals) and...

Missing heritability in genome-wide association study research

, Wellington , New Zealand 2 Paolo Vineis is at the MRC/HPA Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College , London; and the Human Genetics Foundation, Torino , Italy trait3. For

Significance testing in ridge regression for genetic data

, Kim Overvad, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Rudolf Kaaks, Heiner Boeing, Antonia Trichopoulou, Franco Berrino, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, Rosario Tumino, Paolo Vineis, Bas Buneo de Mesquita, Petra