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NAD+ metabolism as a target for metabolic health: have we found the silver bullet?

NAD+ has gone in and out of fashion within the scientific community a number of times since its discovery in the early 1900s. Over the last decade, NAD+ has emerged as a potential target for combatting metabolic disturbances and the mitochondrial dysfunction that is mediated through sirtuin (SIRT) enzymes. The beneficial metabolic effects of the NAD+/SIRT axis have triggered an...

Correction: Thyroid Hormone Activates Brown Adipose Tissue and Increases Non-Shivering Thermogenesis—A Cohort Study in a Group of Thyroid Carcinoma Patients

. Vijgen Bas Havekes Nicole D. Bouvy Felix M. Mottaghy Marleen Kars Nicolaas C. Schaper Patrick Schrauwen Boudewijn Brans Wouter D. van Marken Lichtenbelt During a reanalysis of the study, the authors

Combatting type 2 diabetes by turning up the heat

In our westernised society, the level of physical activity is low. Interventions that increase energy expenditure are generally associated with an improvement in metabolic health. Exercise and exercise training increase energy metabolism and are considered to be among the best strategies for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. More recently, cold exposure has been suggested...

Effects of exercise training on intrahepatic lipid content in humans

Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is the most common liver disorder in western society. Various factors may play a role in determining hepatic fat content, such as delivery of lipids to the liver, de novo lipogenesis, hepatic lipid oxidation, secretion of intrahepatic lipids to the circulation or a combination of these. If delivery of lipids to the liver outweighs the sum of...

Synchronized human skeletal myotubes of lean, obese and type 2 diabetic patients maintain circadian oscillation of clock genes

Correspondence to Patrick Schrauwen. Supplementary information PDF files1.Supplementary Information Rights and permissions This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International ... • Google ScholarSearch for Bart Staels in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google ScholarSearch for Matthijs K. C. Hesselink in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google ScholarSearch for Patrick

The future of brown adipose tissues in the treatment of type 2 diabetes

The recent recognition that humans possess active depots of brown adipose tissue has boosted the interest in this tissue as a potential target for the prevention and treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Furthermore, it was also revealed that brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans may consist of so-called beige or brite adipocytes. So far, cold exposure is...

Blocking the Entrance to Open the Gate

Patrick Schrauwen 1 Silvie Timmers 1 Matthijs K.C. Hesselink 0 0 Department of Human Movement Sciences, NU- TRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht Univer- sity Medical

Thyroid Hormone Activates Brown Adipose Tissue and Increases Non-Shivering Thermogenesis - A Cohort Study in a Group of Thyroid Carcinoma Patients

Background/Objectives Thyroid hormone receptors are present on brown adipose tissue (BAT), indicating a role for thyroid hormone in the regulation of BAT activation. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of thyroid hormone withdrawal followed by thyroid hormone in TSH-suppressive dosages, on energy expenditure and brown adipose tissue activity. Subjects/Methods...

Serum FGF21 levels are associated with brown adipose tissue activity in humans

Marken Lichtenbelt in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google ScholarSearch for Patrick Schrauwen in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google Scholar Contributions M.J.W.H. performed experiments ... interests The authors declare no competing financial interests. Corresponding author Correspondence to Patrick Schrauwen. Rights and permissions This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution

Pronounced Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Gene Expression in Resting and Exercising Human Skeletal Muscle

Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising...

High-Fat Diet–Induced Mitochondrial Biogenesis Is Regulated by Mitochondrial-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Activation of CaMKII

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) activation induces mitochondrial biogenesis in response to increasing cytosolic calcium concentrations. Calcium leak from the ryanodine receptor (RyR) is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is increased with high-fat feeding. We examined whether ROS-induced CaMKII-mediated signaling induced skeletal muscle...

High Oxidative Capacity Due to Chronic Exercise Training Attenuates Lipid-Induced Insulin Resistance

Esther Phielix Ruth Meex D. Margriet Ouwens Lauren Sparks Joris Hoeks Gert Schaart Esther Moonen-Kornips Matthijs K.C. Hesselink Patrick Schrauwen - Fat accumulation in skeletal muscle combined

Relationship of C5L2 Receptor to Skeletal Muscle Substrate Utilization

Objective To investigate the role of Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP) receptor C5L2 in skeletal muscle fatty acid accumulation and metabolism as well as insulin sensitivity in both mice and human models of diet-induced insulin resistance. Design and Methods Male wildtype (WT) and C5L2 knockout (KO) mice were fed a low (LFD) or a high (HFD) fat diet for 10 weeks...

Systemic β-Adrenergic Stimulation of Thermogenesis Is Not Accompanied by Brown Adipose Tissue Activity in Humans

Maarten J. Vosselman Anouk A.J.J. van der Lans Boudewijn Brans Roel Wierts Marleen A. van Baak Patrick Schrauwen Wouter D. van Marken Lichtenbelt Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is currently considered

Relationships between Mitochondrial Function and Metabolic Flexibility in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Introduction Mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid accumulation, insulin resistance and metabolic inflexibility have been implicated in the etiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D), yet their interrelationship remains speculative. We investigated these interrelationships in a group of T2D and obese normoglycemic control subjects. Methods 49 non-insulin dependent male T2D patients and 54 male...

Oxidative Capacity, Lipotoxicity, and Mitochondrial Damage in Type 2 Diabetes

Patrick Schrauwen Matthijs K.C. Hesselink - diabetes (12). In addition, activation of the enzyme AMP- fatty acids that cannot be oxidized will accumulate in the activated protein kinase (AMPK

Prolonged Fasting Identifies Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Dysfunction as Consequence Rather Than Cause of Human Insulin Resistance

Joris Hoeks Noud A. van Herpen Marco Mensink Esther Moonen-Kornips Denis van Beurden Matthijs K.C. Hesselink Patrick Schrauwen OBJECTIVE-Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance have been associated

Brown Adipose Tissue in Morbidly Obese Subjects

Background Cold-stimulated adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) to increase energy expenditure is suggested as a possible therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity. We have recently shown high prevalence of BAT in adult humans, which was inversely related to body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%), suggesting that obesity is associated with lower...