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Transcribed processed pseudogenes in the human genome: an intermediate form of expressed retrosequence lacking protein-coding ability

Pseudogenes, in the case of protein-coding genes, are gene copies that have lost the ability to code for a protein; they are typically identified through annotation of disabled, decayed or incomplete protein-coding sequences. Processed pseudogenes (PΨgs) are made through mRNA retrotransposition. There is overwhelming genomic evidence for thousands of human PΨgs and also dozens of...

Digging for dead genes: an analysis of the characteristics of the pseudogene population in the Caenorhabditis elegans genome

Paul M. Harrison 0 Nathaniel Echols 0 Mark B. Gerstein 0 0 Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University , 260 Whitney Avenue, PO Box 208114, New Haven, CT 06511-8114, USA

Identification of pseudogenes in the Drosophila melanogaster genome

Pseudogenes are copies of genes that cannot produce a protein. They can be detected from disruptions to their apparent coding sequence, caused by frameshifts and premature stop codons. They are classed as either processed pseudogenes (made by reverse transcription from an mRNA) or duplicated pseudogenes, arising from duplication in the genomic DNA and subsequent disablement...

A question of size: the eukaryotic proteome and the problems in defining it

We discuss the problems in defining the extent of the proteomes for completely sequenced eukaryotic organisms (i.e. the total number of protein-coding sequences), focusing on yeast, worm, fly and human. (i) Six years after completion of its genome sequence, the true size of the yeast proteome is still not defined. New small genes are still being discovered, and a large number of...