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SPARC expression by cerebral microvascular endothelial cells in vitro and its influence on blood-brain barrier properties

Background SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) is a nonstructural, cell-matrix modulating protein involved in angiogenesis and endothelial barrier function, yet its potential role in cerebrovascular development, inflammation, and repair in the central nervous system (CNS) remains undetermined. Methods This study examines SPARC expression in cultured human...

Multiple sclerosis in the Arabian Gulf countries: a consensus statement

The epidemiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is rapidly changing in many parts of the world. Based on the Kurtzke classification, the Arabian Gulf Region is located in a low-risk zone for MS; however, recent studies suggest a moderate-to-high prevalence nearby (31–55 MS per 10,0000 individuals), with an increase in incidence in recent years. The relapsing-remitting disease course...

Excitability decreasing central motor plasticity is retained in multiple sclerosis patients

BackgroundCompensation of brain injury in multiple sclerosis (MS) may in part work through mechanisms involving neuronal plasticity on local and interregional scales. Mechanisms limiting excessive neuronal activity may have special significance for retention and (re-)acquisition of lost motor skills in brain injury. However, previous neurophysiological studies of plasticity in MS...

Future of Management of Multiple Sclerosis in the Middle East: A Consensus View from Specialists in Ten Countries

Dahdaleh,7 Dirk Deleu,8 Khaled Esmat,9 Ahmad Khalifa,10 Mohammad A. Sahraian,11 Miklós Szólics,12 Abdulrahman AlTahan,13 Bassem I. Yamout,14 Peter Rieckmann,15 and Abdulkader Daif13 1King Abdullah

Future MS care: a consensus statement of the MS in the 21st Century Steering Group

they should represent different groups in different countries worldwide. The steering group comprises the following members: Peter Rieckmann (Neurologist, Bamberg, Germany); Alexei Boyko (Neurologist ... of interest to declare in regards to Merck Serono: Peter Rieckmann has received honoraria and speakers fees; Diego Centonze has a financial arrangement; Alasdair Coles has received honoraria; Irina

Evaluation of Soluble Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A as a Biomarker of Human Brain Endothelial Barrier Breakdown

Background An inducible release of soluble junctional adhesion molecule-A (sJAM-A) under pro-inflammatory conditions was described in cultured non-CNS endothelial cells (EC) and increased sJAM-A serum levels were found to indicate inflammation in non-CNS vascular beds. Here we studied the regulation of JAM-A expression in cultured brain EC and evaluated sJAM-A as a serum...

Glioblastoma multiforme with oligodendroglial component (GBMO): favorable outcome after post-operative radiotherapy and chemotherapy with nimustine (ACNU) and teniposide (VM26)

Background The presence of an oligodendroglial component within a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is considered a prognostically favorable factor, but the clinical outcome of patients with glioblastoma multiforme with oligodendroglial component (GBMO) after combined post-operative radiotherapy and chemotherapy has rarely been reported. Methods We analyzed overall and progression...

EPIBLASTER-fast exhaustive two-locus epistasis detection strategy using graphical processing units

Detection of epistatic interaction between loci has been postulated to provide a more in-depth understanding of the complex biological and biochemical pathways underlying human diseases. Studying the interaction between two loci is the natural progression following traditional and well-established single locus analysis. However, the added costs and time duration required for the...

mtDNA nt13708A Variant Increases the Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

BackgroundMitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism is a possible factor contributing to the maternal parent-of-origin effect in multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility.Methods and FindingsIn order to investigate the role of mtDNA variations in MS, we investigated six European MS case-control cohorts comprising >5,000 individuals. Three well matched cohorts were genotyped with seven...