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Acceptable medication non-adherence: A crowdsourcing study among French physicians for commonly prescribed medications

distributing the study to their members. Conceptualization: Ste´phanie Sidorkiewicz, Viet-Thi Tran, Philippe Ravaud. Data curation: Ste´phanie Sidorkiewicz. Formal analysis: Ste´phanie Sidorkiewicz ... . Investigation: Ste´phanie Sidorkiewicz. Methodology: Ste´phanie Sidorkiewicz, Viet-Thi Tran. Validation: Ste´phanie Sidorkiewicz, Viet-Thi Tran, Philippe Ravaud. Writing – original draft: Ste´phanie

Variation in severe postpartum hemorrhage management: A national vignette-based study

Conceptualization: Anne Rousseau, Patrick Rozenberg, Philippe Ravaud. Funding acquisition: Anne Rousseau. 9 / 11 Methodology: Anne Rousseau, Patrick Rozenberg, Elodie Perrodeau, Philippe Ravaud. Supervision: Patrick ... Rozenberg, Philippe Ravaud. Validation: Patrick Rozenberg, Philippe Ravaud. Writing ? original draft: Anne Rousseau. Writing ? review & editing: Patrick Rozenberg, Elodie Perrodeau, Philippe Ravaud. 10

Patient-important outcomes in systematic reviews: Poor quality of evidence

Dechartres, Philippe Ravaud. Data curation: Youri Yordanov, Agnes Dechartres. Formal analysis: Youri Yordanov, Agnes Dechartres, Philippe Ravaud. Methodology: Youri Yordanov, Agnes Dechartres, Philippe Ravaud ... . Resources: Youri Yordanov. Supervision: Agnes Dechartres, Philippe Ravaud. 7 / 9 Validation: Agnes Dechartres. Visualization: Youri Yordanov. Writing ± original draft: Youri Yordanov, Agnes Dechartres

Factors associated with online media attention to research: a cohort study of articles evaluating cancer treatments

Background New metrics have been developed to assess the impact of research and provide an indication of online media attention and data dissemination. We aimed to describe online media attention of articles evaluating cancer treatments and identify the factors associated with high online media attention. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE via PubMed on March 1, 2015 for...

Increasing the evidence base in journalology: creating an international best practice journal research network

Biomedical journals continue to be the single most important conduit for disseminating biomedical knowledge. Unlike clinical medicine, where evidence is considered fundamental to practice, journals still operate largely in a ‘black box’ mode without sufficient evidence to drive their practice. We believe there is an immediate need to substantially increase the amount and quality...

Evaluating alternative systems of peer review: a large-scale agent-based modelling approach to scientific publication

The debate on whether the peer-review system is in crisis has been heated recently. A variety of alternative systems have been proposed to improve the system and make it sustainable. However, we lack sufficient evidence and data related to these issues. Here we used a previously developed agent-based model of the scientific publication and peer-review system calibrated with...

Protocol for the development of a CONSORT extension for RCTs using cohorts and routinely collected health data

BackgroundRandomized controlled trials (RCTs) are often complex and expensive to perform. Less than one third achieve planned recruitment targets, follow-up can be labor-intensive, and many have limited real-world generalizability. Designs for RCTs conducted using cohorts and routinely collected health data, including registries, electronic health records, and administrative...

Evidence for Treatment-by-Biomarker interaction for FDA-approved Oncology Drugs with Required Pharmacogenomic Biomarker Testing

For oncology drugs that were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and required pharmacogenomic biomarker testing, we describe 1) the use of enrichment (biomarker-positive patients) and a randomized controlled design by pre-approval trials and 2) the treatment-by-biomarker interaction. From the 137 drugs included in the FDA table, we selected the 22 oncology drugs...

Frugal innovation in medicine for low resource settings

Whilst it is clear that technology is crucial to advance healthcare: innovation in medicine is not just about high-tech tools, new procedures or genome discoveries. In constrained environments, healthcare providers often create unexpected solutions to provide adequate healthcare to patients. These inexpensive but effective frugal innovations may be imperfect, but they have the...

The Global Burden of Journal Peer Review in the Biomedical Literature: Strong Imbalance in the Collective Enterprise

Philippe Ravaud 0 1 Ludovic Trinquart 1 0 Assistance Publique-Hoà pitaux de Paris, H oÃpital Hoà tel-Dieu, Centre d'Epid eÂmiologie Clinique , Paris, France, 4 Cochrane France, Paris , France , 5

Reporting of statistically significant results at ClinicalTrials.gov for completed superiority randomized controlled trials

Background Publication bias and other reporting bias have been well documented for journal articles, but no study has evaluated the nature of results posted at ClinicalTrials.gov. We aimed to assess how many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with results posted at ClinicalTrials.gov report statistically significant results and whether the proportion of trials with significant...

Better prioritization to increase research value and decrease waste

In a recent study published in BMC Medicine, Singh Ospina and colleagues outlined the important gaps between ongoing research and research needs in the field of endocrinology. Many recommendations from clinical practice guidelines are based on a low level of evidence, thereby resulting in research gaps. Despite the publication of around 25,000 randomized controlled trials each...

Comparison of Estimates between Cohort and Case–Control Studies in Meta-Analyses of Therapeutic Interventions: A Meta-Epidemiological Study

-analyses. (DOC) Acknowledgments We thank Elise Diard for help with figures. TOR Network Steering Group. Philippe Ravaud is director of the French EQUATOR Centre and a member of the EQUA10 / 12 Author

Association between trial registration and treatment effect estimates: a meta-epidemiological study

Background To increase transparency in research, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors required, in 2005, prospective registration of clinical trials as a condition to publication. However, many trials remain unregistered or retrospectively registered. We aimed to assess the association between trial prospective registration and treatment effect estimates...

Impact of interventions to improve the quality of peer review of biomedical journals: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background The peer review process is a cornerstone of biomedical research. We aimed to evaluate the impact of interventions to improve the quality of peer review for biomedical publications. Methods We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and WHO ICTRP databases, for all...

Automatic classification of registered clinical trials towards the Global Burden of Diseases taxonomy of diseases and injuries

Background Clinical trial registries may allow for producing a global mapping of health research. However, health conditions are not described with standardized taxonomies in registries. Previous work analyzed clinical trial registries to improve the retrieval of relevant clinical trials for patients. However, no previous work has classified clinical trials across diseases using...

Assessing Complex Emergency Management with Clinical Case-Vignettes: A Validation Study

Objective To evaluate whether responses to dynamic case-vignettes accurately reflect actual practices in complex emergency situations. We hypothesized that when obstetricians were faced with vignette of emergency situation identical to one they previously managed, they would report the management strategy they actually used. On the other hand, there is no reason to suppose that...

Wasted research when systematic reviews fail to provide a complete and up-to-date evidence synthesis: the example of lung cancer

Background Multiple treatments are frequently available for a given condition, and clinicians and patients need a comprehensive, up-to-date synthesis of evidence for all competing treatments. We aimed to quantify the waste of research related to the failure of systematic reviews to provide a complete and up-to-date evidence synthesis over time. Methods We performed a series of...

Meta-Analysis of a Complex Network of Non-Pharmacological Interventions: The Example of Femoral Neck Fracture

Background Surgical interventions raise specific methodological issues in network meta-analysis (NMA). They are usually multi-component interventions resulting in complex networks of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), with multiple groups and sparse connections. Purpose To illustrate the applicability of the NMA in a complex network of surgical interventions and to prioritize...

Differential Globalization of Industry- and Non-Industry–Sponsored Clinical Trials

Background Mapping the international landscape of clinical trials may inform global health research governance, but no large-scale data are available. Industry or non-industry sponsorship may have a major influence in this mapping. We aimed to map the global landscape of industry- and non-industry–sponsored clinical trials and its evolution over time. Methods We analyzed clinical...