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Eleocharis reznicekii (Cyperaceae), a new species from the Mexican High Plateau

Eleocharis reznicekii (Cyperaceae, subg. Eleocharis, series Eleocharis), is described and illustrated. It is morphologically intermediate between E. densa and two species of Eleocharis subseries Eleocharis (E. macrostachya and E. palustris). The new species differs in a combination of characters including conspicuously compressed culms (3 to over 5 times wider than thick) and...

The need for a standard approach to assessing the functionality of rural community water supplies

The Sustainable Development Goals have set an agenda for transformational change in water access, aiming for secure household connections globally. Despite this goal, communal groundwater supplies are likely to remain the main source of improved water supplies for many rural areas in Africa and South Asia for decades to come. Understanding the poor functionality of existing...

G6PD gene variants and its association with malaria in a Sri Lankan population

Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme that plays an important role in many cellular functions. Deficiency of this enzyme results from point mutations in the coding region of the G6PD gene. G6PD-deficiency is important in malaria, as certain anti-malarial drugs could induce haemolysis in such patients and mutations in this gene may influence the...

The biology of sexual development of Plasmodium: the design and implementation of transmission-blocking strategies

transmission-blocking interventions such as, but not limited to, vaccines and drugs. In his introduction to the meeting Richard Carter said that since the 2007 call to eradicate malaria, the field has become

Strain-Specific Protective Effect of the Immunity Induced by Live Malarial Sporozoites under Chloroquine Cover

The efficacy of a whole-sporozoite malaria vaccine would partly be determined by the strain-specificity of the protective responses against malarial sporozoites and liver-stage parasites. Evidence from previous reports were inconsistent, where some studies have shown that the protective immunity induced by irradiated or live sporozoites in rodents or humans were cross-protective...

Severe Vivax Malaria: Newly Recognised or Rediscovered?

Stephen Rogerson and Richard Carter discuss two new studies that challenge current dogma by suggesting that vivax malaria can cause severe disease. ... Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Royal Melbourne Hospital , Parkville, Victoria , Australia. Richard Carter is at the Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological

Genetic polymorphisms associated with anti-malarial antibody levels in a low and unstable malaria transmission area in southern Sri Lanka

Rajika L Dewasurendra 0 Prapat Suriyaphol Sumadhya D Fernando 0 Richard Carter Kirk Rockett Patrick Corran Dominic Kwiatkowski Nadira D Karunaweera 0 in collaboration with the MalariaGEN Consortium


Edinburgh , Ashworth Laboratories, West Edinburgh , United Kingdom; World Health Organization, Roll Back Malaria Department , Geneva , Switzerland 2 Authors' addresses: Richard Carter, School of Biological

Linkage Group Selection: Towards Identifying Genes Controlling Strain Specific Protective Immunity in Malaria

Laboratories, Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh , Edinburgh , United Kingdom 2 Sittiporn Pattaradilokrat , Sandra J. Cheesman, Richard Carter

DNA secondary structures are associated with recombination in major Plasmodium falciparum variable surface antigen gene families

Adam F. Sander Thomas Lavstsen Thomas S. Rask Michael Lisby Ali Salanti Sarah L. Fordyce Jakob S. Jespersen Richard Carter Kirk W. Deitsch Thor G. Theander Anders Gorm Pedersen David E. Arnot Many

Quantitative genome re-sequencing defines multiple mutations conferring chloroquine resistance in rodent malaria

Background Drug resistance in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum severely compromises the treatment and control of malaria. A knowledge of the critical mutations conferring resistance to particular drugs is important in understanding modes of drug action and mechanisms of resistances. They are required to design better therapies and limit drug resistance. A mutation in...

Plasmodium vivax: paroxysm-associated lipids mediate leukocyte aggregation

Background Paroxysms are recurrent febrile episodes, characteristic of Plasmodium vivax infections, which coincide with the rupture of schizont-infected erythrocytes in the patients' circulation. The present study describes the formation of prominent aggregates of leukocytes in vitro in the presence of parasite and host factors released during paroxysms. Methods Whole blood cells...

The Origins of African Plasmodium vivax; Insights from Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing

Richard Culleton Cevayir Coban Fadile Yildiz Zeyrek Pedro Cravo Akira Kaneko Milijaona Randrianarivelojosia Voahangy Andrianaranjaka Shigeyuki Kano Anna Farnert Ana Paula Arez Paul M. Sharp Richard Carter


A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nine months duration was carried out to investigate the impact of malaria and its prevention on the educational attainment of school children in a malaria-endemic area in southern Sri Lanka where both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections are prevalent. A total of 587 children attending grades 1–5 in four schools and resident in...

Evidence for the Transmission of Plasmodium vivax in the Republic of the Congo, West Central Africa

Richard Culleton Mathieu Ndounga Fadile Yildiz Zeyrek Cevayir Coban Prisca Nadine Casimiro Satoru Takeo Takafumi Tsuboi Anjali Yadava Richard Carter Kazuyuki Tanabe () BRIEF REPORT JID 2009:200 (1

An AFLP-based genetic linkage map of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi

Background Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi can be considered as a rodent model of human malaria parasites in the genetic analysis of important characters such as drug resistance and immunity. Despite the availability of some genome sequence data, an extensive genetic linkage map is needed for mapping the genes involved in certain traits. Methods The inheritance of 672 Amplified...