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Using community-based reporting of vital events to monitor child mortality: Lessons from rural Ghana

Marsh Adrienne Clermont Robert E. Black Jennifer Bryce Agbessi Amouzou Kebede Deribe, University of Sussex, UNITED KINGDOM 0 Department of Population, Family, and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins ... , Robert E. Black, Jennifer Bryce, Agbessi Amouzou. Data curation: Benjamin Abuaku, Emily Wilson. 15 / 18 Formal analysis: Stephane Helleringer, Benjamin Abuaku, Andrew Marsh, Agbessi Amouzou. Funding

Direct estimates of cause-specific mortality fractions and rates of under-five deaths in the northern and southern regions of Nigeria by verbal autopsy interview

Nigeria’s under-five mortality rate is the eighth highest in the world. Identifying the causes of under-five deaths is crucial to achieving Sustainable Development Goal 3 by 2030 and improving child survival. National and international bodies collaborated in this study to provide the first ever direct estimates of the causes of under-five mortality in Nigeria. Verbal autopsy...

Beyond causes of death: The social determinants of mortality among children aged 1-59 months in Nigeria from 2009 to 2013

Background Millions of children worldwide suffer and die from conditions for which effective interventions exist. While there is ample evidence regarding these diseases, there is a dearth of information on the social factors associated with child mortality. Methods The 2014 Verbal and Social Autopsy Study was conducted based on a nationally representative sample of 3,254 deaths...

2500-g Low Birth Weight Cutoff: History and Implications for Future Research and Policy

Purpose To research the origins of the 2500 g cutoff for low birth weight and the evolution of indicators to identify newborns at high mortality risk. Description Early research concluded “prematurity”, measured mainly through birth weight, was responsible for increased health risks. The World Health Organization’s original prematurity definition was birth weight ≤2500 g. 1960s...

Understanding Misclassification between Neonatal Deaths and Stillbirths: Empirical Evidence from Malawi

Improving the counting of stillbirths and neonatal deaths is important to tracking Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 and improving vital statistics in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, the validity of self-reported stillbirths and neonatal deaths in surveys is often threatened by misclassification errors between the two birth outcomes. We assessed the extent and...

Using Health Extension Workers for Monitoring Child Mortality in Real-Time: Validation against Household Survey Data in Rural Ethiopia

Background Ethiopia has scaled up its community-based programs over the past decade by training and deploying health extension workers (HEWs) in rural communities throughout the country. Consequently, child mortality has declined substantially, placing Ethiopia among the few countries that have achieved the United Nations’ fourth Millennium Development Goal. As Ethiopia continues...

The Association between Provider Practice and Knowledge of ORS and Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Childhood Diarrhea in Bihar, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India: A Multi-Site Cross-Sectional Study

Introduction Programs aimed at reducing the burden of diarrhea among children under-five in low-resource settings typically allocate resources to training community-level health workers, but studies have suggested that provider knowledge does not necessarily translate into adequate practice. A diarrhea management program implemented in Bihar, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India...

Prevalence of early-onset neonatal infection among newborns of mothers with bacterial infection or colonization: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background Although neonatal infections cause a significant proportion of deaths in the first week of life, little is known about the burden of neonatal disease originating from maternal infection or colonization globally. This paper describes the prevalence of vertical transmission – the percentage of newborns with neonatal infection among newborns exposed to maternal infection...

Global Update and Trends of Hidden Hunger, 1995-2011: The Hidden Hunger Index

Background Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals–also termed hidden hunger–are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children. Methods This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator–the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI)–using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from...

Assessing the Quality of Sick Child Care Provided by Community Health Workers

Background As community case management of childhood illness expands in low-income countries, there is a need to assess the quality of care provided by community health workers. This study had the following objectives: 1) examine methods of recruitment of sick children for assessment of quality of care, 2) assess the validity of register review (RR) and direct observation only...

Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5: progress and challenges

The Millennium Development Goals have galvanized efforts to improve child survival (MDG-4) and maternal health (MDG-5). There has been important progress on both MDGs at global level, although it now appears that few countries will reach them by the target date of 2015. There are known and efficacious interventions to address most of the major causes of these deaths, but...

Protocol for the economic evaluation of the diarrhea alleviation through zinc and oral rehydration salt therapy at scale through private and public providers in rural Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India

Background Child diarrhea persists as a leading public health problem in India despite evidence supporting zinc and low osmolarity oral rehydration salts as effective treatments. Across 2 years in 2010–2013, the Diarrhea Alleviation using Zinc and Oral Rehydration Salts Therapy (DAZT) program was implemented to operationalize delivery of these interventions at scale through...

Rotavirus Surveillance at a WHO-Coordinated Invasive Bacterial Disease Surveillance Site in Bangladesh: A Feasibility Study to Integrate Two Surveillance Systems

The World Health Organization (WHO) currently coordinates rotavirus diarrhea and invasive bacterial disease (IBD) surveillance at 178 sentinel sites in 60 countries. However, only 78 sites participate in both surveillance systems using a common sentinel site. Here, we explored the feasibility of extending a WHO-IBD surveillance platform to generate data on the burden of rotaviral...

Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Current Indicators for Measuring Coverage of Diarrhea Treatment Interventions and Opportunities for Improvement

1 Robert E. Black 0 1 David Osrin, Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellow in Clinical Science, UCL Reader in International Child Health, Honorary Consultant, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children

Effect of Iron/Folic Acid Supplementation on the Outcome of Malaria Episodes Treated with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine

Folic acid supplementation may potentially alter the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment in children with malaria. However, there is lack of evidence from randomized controlled trials and effects of folic acid supplementation on clinical efficacy of SP therapy remain moderately understood among children. In a double masked, placebo-controlled trial among...

Effect of Iron/Folic Acid Supplementation on the Outcome of Malaria Episodes Treated with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine

Folic acid supplementation may potentially alter the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment in children with malaria. However, there is lack of evidence from randomized controlled trials and effects of folic acid supplementation on clinical efficacy of SP therapy remain moderately understood among children. In a double masked, placebo-controlled trial among...

Independent Evaluation of the Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness Strategy in Malawi Using a National Evaluation Platform Design

program managers is unjustified and inappropriate, implying that the reporting of evaluation results should be tempered to reinforce the status quo. BENJAMIN BANDA LAWRENCE H. MOULTON ROBERT E. BLACK

Systematic review of probiotics for the treatment of community-acquired acute diarrhea in children

Background Oral rehydration salts (ORS), zinc, and continued feeding are the recommended treatments for community-acquired acute diarrhea among young children. However, probiotics are becoming increasingly popular treatments for diarrhea in some countries. We sought to estimate the effect of probiotics on diarrhea morbidity and mortality in children < 5 years of age. Methods We...