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Search: authors:"Rosalind A Coleman"

13 papers found.
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Compartmentalized Acyl-CoA Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle Regulates Systemic Glucose Homeostasis

The impaired capacity of skeletal muscle to switch between the oxidation of fatty acid (FA) and glucose is linked to disordered metabolic homeostasis. To understand how muscle FA oxidation affects systemic glucose, we studied mice with a skeletal muscle–specific deficiency of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL)1. ACSL1 deficiency caused a 91% loss of ACSL-specific activity and...

Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase-2 Is Expressed in Spermatic Germ Cells and Incorporates Arachidonic Acid into Triacylglycerols

Background De novo glycerolipid synthesis begins with the acylation of glycerol-3 phosphate catalyzed by glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT). In mammals, at least four GPAT isoforms have been described, differing in their cell and tissue locations and sensitivity to sulfhydryl reagents. In this work we show that mitochondrial GPAT2 overexpression in CHO-K1 cells increased...

Contribution of novel ATGL missense mutations to the clinical phenotype of NLSD-M: a strikingly low amount of lipase activity may preserve cardiac function

The lack of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing enzyme that hydrolyzes fatty acids from triacylglycerol (TAG) stored in multiple tissues, causes the autosomal recessive disorder neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSD-M). In two families of Lebanese and Italian origin presenting with NLSD-M, we identified two new missense...

Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltranferase-2 Behaves as a Cancer Testis Gene and Promotes Growth and Tumorigenicity of the Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 Cell Line

The de novo synthesis of glycerolipids in mammalian cells begins with the acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate, catalyzed by glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT). GPAT2 is a mitochondrial isoform primarily expressed in testis under physiological conditions. Because it is aberrantly expressed in multiple myeloma, it has been proposed as a novel cancer testis gene. Using a...

Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase 1 Deficiency in ob/ob Mice Diminishes Hepatic Steatosis but Does Not Protect Against Insulin Resistance or Obesity

Angela A. Wendel Lei O. Li Yue Li Gary W. Cline Gerald I. Shulman Rosalind A. Coleman OBJECTIVE-Hepatic steatosis is strongly associated with insulin resistance, but a causal role has not been

Clinical and genetic characterization of chanarin-dorfman syndrome patients: first report of large deletions in the ABHD5 gene

Background Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE) and an intracellular accumulation of triacylglycerol (TG) droplets in most tissues. The clinical phenotype involves multiple organs and systems, including liver, eyes, ears, skeletal muscle and central nervous system (CNS...

Lysophosphatidic Acid Activates Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-γ in CHO Cells That Over-Express Glycerol 3-Phosphate Acyltransferase-1

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an agonist for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). Although glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 (GPAT1) esterifies glycerol-3-phosphate to form LPA, an intermediate in the de novo synthesis of glycerolipids, it has been assumed that LPA synthesized by this route does not have a signaling role. The availability of Chinese Hamster...

Rosiglitazone Inhibits Acyl-CoA Synthetase Activity and Fatty Acid Partitioning to Diacylglycerol and Triacylglycerol via a Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor-γ–Independent Mechanism in Human Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells and Macrophages

Rosiglitazone is an insulin-sensitizing agent that has recently been shown to exert beneficial effects on atherosclerosis. In addition to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, rosiglitazone can affect other targets, such as directly inhibiting recombinant long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL)-4 activity. Because it is unknown if ACSL4 is expressed in vascular cells...

Leptin Directly Alters Lipid Partitioning in Skeletal Muscle

Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone that directly regulates both adiposity and energy homeostasis, decreases food intake and appears to partition metabolic fuels toward utilization and away from storage. Because skeletal muscle expresses the leptin receptor and plays a major role in determining energy metabolism, we studied leptin's effects on glucose and fatty acid (FA...

L-Glutamine and Transforming Growth Factor-α Enhance Recovery of Monoacylglycerol Acyltransferase and Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Activity in Porcine Postischemic Ileum

Recovery of the ability to digest and absorb lipids is essential to the maintenance of normal nutrition in infants with bowel damage. Two intrinsic microsomal enzymes, monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), catalyze the major pathway for intestinal triacylglycerol biosynthesis. This study describes the effects of intestinal ischemia on...

HEPATIC MONOACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY IN SUCKLING RATS

Hepatic monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) activity is 700-fold higher during the suckling period than in the adult rat. Specific activity in total particulate preparations rose from 9.4 nmol/min/mg before birth to a peak of 78 nmol/min/mg on the 6th postnatal day. MGAT activity fell sharply after day 8 and was 1.6 and 0.1 nmol/min/mg on day 28 and in adult rats...

CHRONIC RENAL DISEASE IN TYPE I GLYCCGEN STORAGE DISEASE

Clinical manifestations of type I glycogen storage disease (GSD-I) include growth retardation, hepatomegaly, lactic acidosis, hyperuricemia and hyperlipidemia. Kidney enlargement is common, but renal disease has not been appreciated as a major component of GSD-I. Of thirty-four GSD-I patients (32 type Ia and 2 type Ib) under our care, 15 children less than 10 years old have...